16 Which Type Of Cell Is An Animal Cell Role of Enzymes in Nutrition

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Role of Enzymes in Nutrition

Enzymes are chemicals produced in living organisms. They are amazing organic catalysts which are essential to life as they control all the chemical reactions that take place in the living system. Enzymes are part of all living cells, including those of plants and animals.

The term enzyme, which literally means ‘in yeast,’ was coined following the introduction of

catalytic properties of yeast and yeast juices. Although enzymes are produced in living cells,

they do not rely on the vital processes of the cell and work outside the cell. Of course

yeast enzymes, for example, when expressed from yeast cells have the ability to work

their normal effect, that is, the conversion of sugar to alcohol.

An interesting feature of enzymes is that while they undergo a chemical reaction, they remain intact inside

procedure. They however, work with maximum efficiency at a certain temperature. Bring them down

temperatures below or above this level slow down the reaction. A high degree of heat, that is

above 60 o C, completely destroy their action.

It has been determined that there are over 20,000 enzymes in the human body. This calculation is

based on a number of physical processes that seem to require action. However, only so far

about 1,000 enzymes have been identified. But their greatest influence is food and other livelihoods

established procedures. They are protein molecules made up of chains of amino acids

acids. They play a vital role and work more efficiently than any reagent concocted by chemists.

So for example, a chemist can separate proteins into their component amino acids by boiling

them at 166 o C for more than 18 hours in a strong solution of hydrochloric acid, but the enzymes of

small intestines can do so in less than three hours at body temperature in a neutral medium.

One feature that distinguishes enzymes from inorganic catalysts is that they are completely soluble

specific in their activities. This means that a specific enzyme can only cause certain reactions

a particular type of substance or a group of closely related substances.

The articles on which

Enzyme activity is known as “substrate”. The specificity of the enzyme is, however, related to

Formation of enzyme-substrate complex which requires that the appropriate groupings of

both substrate and enzyme should be in the correct relative position. The substrate must be suitable

An enzyme like a key fits your lock.

Enzymes which are used in cells make them intracellular enzymes.

Enzymes which are produced in cells that secrete them to other parts of the body are known

as extracellular enzymes. Dietary juices are an example of the latter type.

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