2. Describe Two Differences Between Plant And Animal Mitosis. Understanding the Health Benefits of Moderate Red Wine Consumption

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Understanding the Health Benefits of Moderate Red Wine Consumption

Previous epidemiological studies suggest that alcohol – and therefore, wine, liquor and spirits, is the factor responsible for the health benefits despite its negative effects such as alcoholism and social effects, cognitive development impairments , fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), and the increased risk of breast cancer in women are not disputed.

In moderate use, alcohol has been shown to increase the amount of tPA, or Tissue Plasminogen Activator, a substance that causes the conversion of plasminogen to plasmin, an important enzyme responsible for breaking down clots. And in the May 31, 2009 issue, Wine Spectator describes a Stanford University research study that states that aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) enzymes process alcohol and “eliminate toxic products created by breaking down fats in cells during heart attack. the protected product prevents further damage to the heart cells.”

Although wine has a positive effect, more recent studies have shown that red wine provides more protection against diseases and illnesses and, therefore, that other health compounds of it is important in red wine that is not found in white wine, beer or spirits. These health compounds belong to a class of compounds known as polyphenols of which there are two types in red wine: nonflavonoids and flavonoids. The word “flavonoid” comes from Latin flavonemeaning “yellow” – and not “sweet” – which often confuses people.

Nonflavonoids include stilbene polyphenols (also known as stilbenoids) such as resveratrol from grapes, and hydroxycinnamic and hydroxybenzoic acid derivatives such as gallotannins and ellagitannins found in oak-aged wines. Gallotannins and ellagitannins are well known hydrolyzable tannins and they are copolymers of gallic and ellagic acids and glucose, respectively.

Until recently, resveratrol (3,5,4′-trihydroxystilbene) was believed to be the main compound responsible for the health benefits of red wine. However, modern measurement methods show that the amount of resveratrol in wine is too low, even in wines made with fining agents such as PVPP, to be of any significant health consequence on its own. But a diet rich in resveratrol from fruits, vegetables, nuts, and wine has been linked, along with a healthy lifestyle, to a longer life in humans according to Dr. Joseph Maroon, world-renowned neurosurgeon and author of The Longevity factor. He has studied extensively on Dr. David Sinclair’s research on the subject. Sinclair is the Director of the Paul F. Glenn Laboratories for the Biological Mechanisms of Aging at Harvard Medical School and a major researcher on the biology of longevity. His group recently demonstrated in laboratory experiments that resveratrol has life-prolonging activity in not only normal mice but also obese ones by activating “survival” genes. It has also been shown that resveratrol increases the production of nitric oxide (NO) by the endothelium (the thin layer of cells that line the inside of blood vessels). Endothelial nitric oxide is a vasodilator meaning it dilates the arteries in our body to protect the tissues from ischemic damage.

It is interesting to note that resveratrol compounds are produced under stress in plants as a way to fight fungal infections. After all, resveratrol is also classified as a phytoalexin (antibiotics produced by plants under attack) and, therefore, the concentrations of resveratrol are higher in grapes grown in cooler temperatures. and cold. This is the basis of those Xenohormesis Hypothesis which says that “animals have come to understand the materials that indicate stress in other species, in order to have an advance warning of a damaged environment.” This was posted by Sinclair and colleague Konrad Howitz and helps explain the French Paradox. Maroon also said that V. rotundifolia Muscadine grapes are a unique advantage because these have an extra chromosome (compared to V. vinifera cultivars) that produce the phytochemical ellagic acid, and are then converted to ellagitannins which are believed to provide anticancer and other health benefits.

Flavonoids are a group of compounds found primarily in grape skins, fruits and seeds. Flavanols (also known as flavan-3-ols) such as catechin and epicatechin are flavonoids found abundantly in grape seeds (as well as other “healthy foods” such as green tea and dark chocolate) and are responsible for giving the astringency sensation known from wines tannic There are also anthocyanins such as delphinidin and malvidin which are responsible for the red color found in grape skins and then added to red wine during maceration and fermentation. And there are flavonols like quercetin which are found to be powerful natural antioxidants that provide a number of health benefits that increase in the presence of resveratrol which quercetin is readily available.

Recent research, particularly by Roger Corder, professor of experimental medicine at the William Harvey Research Institute in London, England and author of Red Wine Dinnerthus demonstrating that procyanidins are the active components.

Procyanidins, a subclass of flavanols are also known as the proanthocyanidins or as procyanidin oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPC) or as has become tannins because they are formed from the condensation of flavanols. They are found in large concentrations in grape seeds (which explains the recent grape oil craze) and contain long chains of amounts of other flavanols such as catechin and epicatechin. Young red wines are the richest in procyanidins and as the wine ages, the procyanidin molecules polymerize into longer, heavier and smaller chains that cause it to degrade. of barrels, tanks or bottles. Logically, it follows, as Corder says, that the health benefits of red wine increase when drunk. Also, different grapes have different amounts of procyanidins and Corder’s research mentions Tannat as the most procyanidin-rich red. vinifera various.

Tannat grapes are used to make the wonderful wines of Madiran, an important region in the foothills of the Pyrénées Mountains in southwestern France and of Uruguay in southeastern South America. Tannat-based wines are incredibly deep-colored, concentrated, and highly tannic as their name would suggest when they are refined using traditional winemaking techniques that emphasize phenolic extraction and little or no fining and filtering. Red wines made using carbonic maceration or distilled as rosés or using a short fermentation time will contain only low levels of procyanidins. As seen earlier, polyphenols are not as soluble in grape juice and become less soluble in wine as the alcohol content increases during fermentation.

Procyanidin concentration in grapes also depends on the age of the grapes and physiological practices. Rough vines, for example, by reducing water intake and harvesting in small fruits can be beneficial in this respect and the older the vines, the better because of the additional stress of age which tends to favor concentration phenolic. A long, slow growth period is always preferred, however, we cannot control Mother Nature.

So how do procyanidins work in our body to reduce the risks of atherosclerosis, cancer, dementia, diabetes and other diseases and illnesses? There are two different mechanisms of the body that we examine here: antioxidant by reducing oxidative stress, and hypolipemic (as the name suggests-hypolipemic refers to a substance or compound that reduces the concentration of lipids in the blood).

Procyanidins are powerful natural antioxidants (so is resveratrol) much like vitamins C and E. They are capable of fighting free radicals responsible for aging and diseases. Free radicals are atoms, molecules or ions with unpaired electrons which make them highly reactive and which can attack and damage key components in living cells, proteins within cells and DNA and can cause their proper functioning to start disease like CHD or malignancy. crab. In your little book ResveratrolMatilde Parente, MD compares oxidative damage caused by free radicals to rust.

Procyanidins also lower LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol bad defenseand raising the levels of HDL (high-density lipoprotein) cholesterol or those good cholesterol. LDL cholesterol is responsible for coronary artery disease, i.e., the formation of platelets in blood clots that lead to oxidation of LDL cholesterol and then to atherosclerosis- the most common form of arteriosclerosis in which fatty deposits build up in the arteries. The arterial wall therefore restricts blood flow – and increases the risk of myocardial infarction (heart attack). Saturated fats from red or processed meats and trans-fats are major culprits of LDL cholesterol. Triglycerides, the main component of vegetable oil and animal fats are also involved in atherosclerosis. HDL cholesterol contains more proteins and less fat and actually removes LDL cholesterol from the blood and the lining of the arteries and carries it to the liver for breakdown and elimination.

On the lighter side of things, NYDailyNews.com reports that women who drink two glasses of wine a day experience greater sexual satisfaction than non-drinkers or one-glass-a-day drinkers respectively. to researchers from the University of Florence, Italy. We can safely extrapolate these results to men, without the need for any scientific studies. But gentlemen (and post-menopausal women), be forewared-alcohol brings snoring which your partner can find unromatic and is less inclined to invite you again for another sexual escapade. So go easy on the wine (and other alcoholic beverages especially distilled spirits) and stick to moderate consumption.

Need more good news to make wine a part of your daily diet?

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