2 Main Structural Differences Between Plant And Animal Cells Three Principal Carbohydrates and the Foods in Which they are Present

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Three Principal Carbohydrates and the Foods in Which they are Present

Carbohydrates are organic molecules (containing carbon from living sources) and are our primary source of energy. The three main carbohydrates according to their structure) are: sugars, starch and fiber.

1. SUGAR

Monosaccharide:

· Glucose found in fruits or can be hydrolyzed from starch, cane sugar, milk sugar, malt sugar

· Fructose found in many fruits and juices, honey, some vegetables

· Galactose is formed in the process of energy production of milk sugar lactose

Disaccharides:

  • Lactosealso known as “milk sugar” and the only sugar of animal origin, comes from mother’s milk
  • Sucrose or “white sugar” comes from sugar cane, sugar beets, maple syrup, molasses, corn and pineapple.
  • Maltose or “malt sugar” is produced in the process of breaking down the starches in cereals and is also found in beer, malted snacks, some breakfast foods and crackers

2. STARCHES are also known as “complex carbohydrates” or “polysaccharides”. They are found in potatoes, root vegetables and whole grains like wheat, rice and corn.

  • Amylopectin – the most common starch found in foods
  • Amylose – with long chains of glucose molecules
  • Glycogen – starch of animal origin (from muscle and liver)
  • Dextrins – partially digested stars, formed during the breakdown of starch

3. FIBER is mostly indigestible cellulose from the skins of fruits and vegetables and the coverings of cereals. It provides little energy or caloric value but helps bowel function and elimination. Other hi-fiber ingredients are: guar gum, konjar root powder, chitosan (derived from oyster shells).

  • Cellulose – the most common fiber from basic foods
  • Hemicelluloses – from the cell walls of seeds (ie psyllium seed husks, pectin)
  • Agar and alginate – from sea water
  • Carrageen – from the Irish moss plant

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