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Structure and Function of Cell Nucleus, ER, Ribosomes and Golgi Apparatus
Endoplasmic reticulum structure
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a type of organelle inside a cell. The ER is a network of water-filled tubes. There are two types of ER, rough and smooth. One can have both or one, depending on its function.
• Rough ER has joined the nuclear membrane. The outer edge is studded with ribosomes (organelles involved in protein synthesis).
• Smooth ER is continuous with rough ER but lacks ribosomes.
Endoplasmic reticulum functions rough ER
• Produces the building blocks of cell membranes (phospholipids and cholesterol).
• Help make and transport proteins.
• The surface provides a site for chemical reactions.
Protein synthesis and transport
1 Ribosomes on the rough ER wall make protein chains.
2 Within the lumen, protein fibers fold into shapes that differ in their chemical structure, identifying them as specific proteins.
3 Sugars can be added to proteins to create glycoproteins.
4 The finished proteins are stored in membranous vesicles (small membranous sacs), which cut off the ER and travel to other places in the cell.
Dan ER Enzymes (biological catalysts) embedded in your membrane walls affect chemical reactions by:
• making cholesterol;
• production of sex hormones (steroids, hormones made from cholesterol);
• active fats;
• detoxification of toxins; we had
• muscle cell contraction.
Ribosomes Location etc
Ribosomes are organelles found in the human cell. They are also found in all plant and other animal cells. Ribosomes are used to synthesize DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) into proteins.
They are small, round granules.
Ribosomes are located on the rough endoplasmic reticulum (giving it a “rough” appearance). They are also found individually throughout the cytoplasm.
Near the middle
Ribosomes are most obvious on the rough ER, where most of the cell’s proteins are manufactured. Ribosomes read mRNA molecules (messenger ribonucleic acid), a type of nucleic acid copied from the cell’s DNA, that are transported from the nucleus through the ER lumen.
Ribosomes have two parts, a large and a small one. They are made of rRNA (ribosomal ribonucleic acid) and proteins. Each ribosome is more than 20 nm in diameter and 30 nm in height.
The mRNA molecule is passed between the two parts. At this point the triple code of mRNA is translated.
The function of ribosomes
When it occurs between ribosomal units, one strand of mRNA comes into contact with another type of nucleic acid called tRNA (transfer RNA).
tRNA molecules are coded to bind specific amino acids, the building blocks of proteins.
mRNA codes for specific amino acids using letter “words,” or codons. The letters in each word correspond to bases, important structures that line up with the RNA molecule. The bases are guanine (G), cytosine (C), adenine (A), and uracil (U). The four bases form pairs of opposites: G with C and A with U. Thus, each codon of the mRNA bonds to the corresponding tRNA molecule that is made up of opposite bases. In doing so, the tRNA moves the correct amino acid to the correct position for the protein to be made.
Free ribosomes (those not attached to the rough ER) are involved in making proteins, such as enzymes, to be used by the cell itself. Membrane-bound ribosomes (those attached to the rough ER) are mostly involved in making proteins that will be used in the cell membrane or taken out of the cell.
The Golgi apparatus, or complex, is an organelle found in most human cells.
It is usually located near the nucleus in the center of the cell. It is named after the 19th century Italian anatomist Camillo Golgi, and is associated with the secretion of substances from the cell.
• The Golgi apparatus is composed of four to six flat, membrane-enclosed, disc-shaped sacs known as cisternae.
The wells are stacked like a pile of dishes.
A large number of membranous vesicles (small membrane sacs) surround each Golgi apparatus. Most vesicles are located on the side of the Golgi apparatus close to the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER).
• Each Golgi complex has two “faces” or sides. The cis face is on one side and the trans face is on the other side. Generally, the cis face looks to the rough ER and the trans face to the cell (plasma) membrane that surrounds the cell. These faces are functionally and biochemically different, and contain very different enzymes (biological catalysts).
• Each eye is connected to its own network of branching and connecting tubules (small tubes).
These are known as cis-Golgi and trans-Golgi networks.
• Proteins and lipids travel from the ER to the cis surface in vesicles, where they enter the pore. These substances are then released through the trans surface in other vesicles.
The nucleus is usually located in the center of a cell. Its shape often reflects the shape of the cell. For example, flat cells have flat spines.
A nucleus is:
• Them nuclear envelope. This is two membranes. Like the cell membrane, each nuclear membrane contains a phospholipid bilayer – two layers of phospholipid molecules.
• Nuclear poresIn some places, nuclear membranes fuse to create holes in the nuclear envelope.
• Nucleoplasm This is a gel-like fluid that contains important chemicals, such as nutrients and salts. Nucleolus and chromatin are retained in the nucleoplasm.
• Chromatin Black amorphous area Nucleus made of strands of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). DNA is wound around histone proteins that make up chromatin fibers.
Condensation of eight histones on a DNA strand in a nucleosome.
Normally, chromatin is not visible under a light microscope. During cell division, however, chromatin condenses to form chromosomes, which are visible under a light microscope.
• Nucleolus This is a compact ball of RNA (ribonucleic acid) and proteins. It has no outer membrane. Every nucleus has one or more nucleoli.
The nuclei in different cells have many shapes.
Red blood cells, or erythrocytes, do not contain blood cells at all. Different white blood cells (leukocytes) have unusual nuclei. Neutrophils have multilobed nuclei.
Eosinophils have only two lobes. The nucleus of the basophil cell, is difficult to see behind the granules of histamine in it.
Lymphocytes are small cells, and their nuclei fill almost every cell.
Monocytes are very large cells. Their cores are often kidney-bean shaped.
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