2 Similarities And Differences Between Plant And Animal Cells Structure of an Atom

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Structure of an Atom

Structure of the atom

Kiwi fruits are a treat to our taste buds, but have you ever noticed the inside portion? It has a light colored center and surrounding layers of dark seeds within the flesh of the fruit.

If we compare an atom with a Kiwi fruit, the concentrated center part can be compared to the positively charged atomic nucleus and the dark colored seeds to the uncharged electrons. It is believed that these electrons revolve around the sun as the earth and other planets revolve around it. As we know, an atom is the smallest particle of matter and no one can see the movement of these electrons with the naked eye. The nucleus has two types of sub atomic particles, positive protons and neutral neutrons The above for the concept of a mature nucleus and obedient electron that maintains a regular and regular approach proposed by the Danish scientist Niels Bohr .

In 1922, Bohr won the Nobel Prize for proposing this atomic structure that laid the foundation for quantum physics. But do you think, passive and obedient electrons and silent nuclei can generate radiation? They will be happy afterwards, won’t they? But the truth is the great power of radio work. Powerful alpha rays, beta rays, gamma rays, X rays and the ever-moving quarks and neutrinos are real. What causes these insurmountable events? While Bohr’s atomic system could not explain these phenomena, scientists came up with many ideas with electrons moving in the same orbits but in different directions. Among them Louis De Broglie took Einstein’s wave of light and explained that all forms of matter like protons, electrons, atoms, molecules show two characters like light. de Broigle, using Maxwell’s electromagnetic wave theory developed the concept of matter waves. Sound waves are waves associated with the movement of microscopic particles.

Let’s go back to the Kiwi fruit to understand the concept. In the picture, you must have seen the tender meat spread over the black seeds. Imagine, these cold layers are the path of those seeds that go in and around and the cold layers are formed because of the movement of those seeds. Instead of creating a circular path, the path created by the seeds looks like waves. Such is the case with the flow of electrons around the nucleus. These paths of electrons around the nucleus are called orbitals. Orbitals are regions in space around the nucleus where electrons can be found.

Now, let’s understand why scientists are concerned about atomic structure in terms of radiation. What is radiation? Radioactivity is the emission of radiation or particles caused by the disintegration of an atomic nucleus. Alpha particles are positive particles that contain two protons and two neutrons. Beta particles are negatively charged and are generated by the nucleus during its emission process, while gamma rays are neutral radiation. If the Bohr model of the atom is correct, the atom will always have a stable nucleus with the same number of protons survived by the same number of obedient electrons moving around it at the desired speed.

The withdrawal of the nucleus indicates the possibility of a price difference and the tension that grows between the nucleus. The first reason may be an imbalance in charge and it leads to the discovery of the wave theory of sub atomic particles. This concept led Werner Karl Heisenberg to develop a theory about the position of electrons within atomic orbitals named Hesenberg’s uncertainty principle. Heisenberg said “It is impossible to determine simultaneously and accurately both the position and momentum of a microscopic moving particle such as an electron, proton, etc.” According to the fundamental uncertainties, due to the wave nature of the electron, we cannot describe the exact path ie, the state followed by the electron at any time. Thus Bohr’s theory, according to which the electron is considered to have a state that until the power is specified, it is still not accurate.

How does it affect people if we believe that the Bohr Model of the atom is the correct model and stop all further research based on the wave theory? If scientists do not discover the truth behind the atomic structure,

1. We will not be able to treat cancer patients

Gamma rays are used to kill cancer cells and are used for cancer treatment. An atom of the element Cobalt-60 is often used for this purpose. Using radiation to fight cancer is an important task. With the growing number of cancer cases in the world, a degree in radiation therapy offers many opportunities.

2. Kill Microbes

Gamma rays are successfully used to destroy microbes that cause food spoilage. Surgical instruments and syringes can also be treated with gamma rays. It is a great way to prevent infections.

3. Carbon dating

When an animal or plant dies it stops taking in carbon. But its carbon-14 content continues to decay. If we compare carbon-14 with that from living matter, the age of animals and plants can be calculated. This is known as carbon dating. Carbon dating is used in the study of fossils. It is also a great job that has opportunities in the disciplines of archeology, paleontology etc.,

4. Calculation of the age of the rock

The remaining 1.2% of potassium atoms are radioactive, known as K-40. The nucleus of this atom disintegrates for twelve thousand years and eventually decays to form the stable argon atom. By detecting the argon content of potassium rocks, scientists can estimate the age of such rocks. Therefore, it is a great support for scientists and geologists.

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