7 Scientific Studies About How Animals React To Music Does Memory Reside Inside the Brain

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Does Memory Reside Inside the Brain

On July 2, 2005, NBC Philadelphia had an interesting report. Christina Santhouse contracted a virus that caused a rare brain disease known as Rasmussen’s Syndrome at the age of 8. And her doctor had to perform a hemispherectomy, removing half of the brain, on her. After 10 years, Christina is about to graduate from high school with honors. After the surgery, he became slightly paralyzed and his left hand was completely inactive. He had also lost his peripheral vision, but otherwise, he was a normal young man. Such a case was reported on the Telegraph (UK) on May 29, 2002, a girl named Bursa had the same problem, and her left brain was removed when she was three years old, she became Dutch and Turkish. well by the time he was 7. In 1987. A. Smith reported that a patient with a hemispherectomy had graduated from college, gone to graduate school and scored above average on intelligence tests. Studies have found no significant long-term effects on memory, personality, or humor after the procedure, and little changes in overall cognitive function.

The result of hemispherectomy is amazing. Neuroscience tends to suggest memory is stored in neurons in the brain. If that premise is true, removing half of the brain will destroy a person’s memory if memory is stored in a network of neurons as one school of neurophysiology suggests, or at least destroy half of the memory of the memory information is stored in an individual. neurons in the brain as suggested by another school of cognitive neuroscience. But it is clear that the results do not match one of the explanations. Removing part of the brain is one of the most common surgeries for severe epilepsy and has been performed thousands of times. Most of the results are similar to those of hemispherectomy.

The traditional explanation for the observation is that the information stored in the diseased brain regions is duplicated in the healthy part of the brain before the surgery. This explanation is not enough when you consider how brain surgery is done. The surgeon has to remove the infected area and some of the surrounding healthy tissue, sometimes a skin much larger than the infected area, to ensure that the infection does not spread. If the information stored in the diseased areas is reproduced somewhere in the brain before the surgical procedure, some information is still lost when the healthy area brain tissue is removed, so the memory will suffer.

This is not noticeable after the surgery. Therefore it is necessary to assume that the memory stored in the adjacent healthy skin is also reproduced in other parts of the brain. This raises a question: how does the brain know how much a healthy body will produce? If the brain is unconscious, surgeries will erase part of the memory. The belief that memory is stored in the brain (in neurons or in a network of neurons) apparently contradicts findings in brain surgeries.

In the 1920s Karl Lashley conducted several experiments in an attempt to identify the part of the brain where memories are stored. He taught rats to find their way through a maze, and then made lesions in different parts of the cerebral cortex in an attempt to erase the original memory trace. His experimental animals were still able to find their way through the maze wherever he put lesions on their brains. So it is concluded that memories are not stored in any one area of ​​the brain, but instead are distributed widely. Distributing the memory of every single event over the entire brain is both energy inefficient and mathematically impossible. If your thought is not stored in the brain, the logical conclusion should be that the memory is not stored in the brain.

It is clear that the instincts are inherited and no one has the slightest idea where the information contained in the instincts is stored, and the memory is thought to be acquired by experience and stored by changing signaling chemicals in brain cells.

New research shows that even memory can be inherited. Research by Larry Feig at Tufts University School of Medicine in Boston indicates that mother rats who receive brain training before they are pregnant can pass their cognitive benefits to their offspring even if there is no direct contact between the mothers and their children. It is clear that cognitive memory is not acquired by the youth through experience, and there is no obvious way for the youth to store the information in their neurons, so where does the youth get the memory from? Maybe from where they store their psychological information, a place that no one knows yet.

“Brain areas such as the hippocampus, amygdala, striatum, or mammillary bodies are thought to be involved in specific types of memory. For example, the hippocampus is believed to be involved in spatial and descriptive learning, while the amygdala is Damage to certain areas in patients and animal models and subsequent memory deficits is the main source of information. However, instead of identifying a specific area, it may be damage to the pathway that travels through the area is actually responsible for perceived deficiency” (extracted from http://www.wikipedia.com). If a person keeps all his possessions in a warehouse attached to his house on the highway, he cannot get anything from the warehouse if the highway collapses. To assume that everything is stored on the highway based on the facts can’t get anything when the highway is blocked is ridiculous. Although the connection between the brain and memory is well established, it is beyond logic to conclude that memory resides in the brain.

Wilder Penfield was a pioneer in associating a specific type of memory with a specific region in the brain. When he performed surgeries to remove specific types of frontal lobe loci that cause epilepsy, he made ground-breaking discoveries by observing that patients who were not anesthetized (with local pain relievers) could listen and respond to your questions while their time lobe. They are doing surgery on it. Indeed, verbal feedback by the patient is essential so that Penfield can determine that he is removing the exact part of the brain which is the cause of the neurological symptoms being treated. He will insert an electrode into the patient’s brain and provide an electrical impulse to see how the patient responds.

One of Penfield’s patients heard a particular musical selection played by an orchestra “when a point on the superior surface of the right temporal lobe was stimulated after removal of the anterior half of the lobe.” The voice was so clear that the patient believed there was a gramophone in the operating room. As the same point is repeated (without removing the electrode, standing alone and providing electrical current again) the music starts at the same point at the time it started before.

When Penfield stopped the electrode, the patient heard nothing. He found that the patient could not predict what would happen after the electrode was removed. “LG saw a man fighting. When the points were re-simulated he saw a man and a dog walking on the road.” Often the memory is not able to remember.

At the beginning of his work in brain surgery, Penfield’s thought memory must be stored somewhere in the brain and the stimulus opens the floodgates of memory. His work generated many studies to link memory and emotion to a specific region in the brain. Penfield’s continuous research convinced him that memory could not exist in the brain. He and his colleagues reported that removing more cortex after brain injury raised the Intelligence Quotient. In one case, he was surprised to see that his patient’s Intelligence Quotient went from 75 to 80 – 95 after he performed a large removal of the frontal lobes. William Cone reported the same result after removing part of his patient’s brain. Penfield’s progressive work, especially on the hippocampus and cortex, has changed his views on the brain, consciousness and memory mechanism. He later suggested that the interpretive cortex of the temporal lobes acts as a bridge, and the hippocampus becomes “access keys” to past recorded experiences located somewhere outside the brain.

Philosopher William James had a technically different but very similar view on consciousness as Penfield. He notes that consciousness operates through the brain rather than the brain producing consciousness. The idea of ​​consciousness being separated from the body is a long tradition in western thought. Plato presents the physical body as a limiting factor on conscious experience. Kant described himself as “an attachment to the life of our pure soul”. The idea has grown into a proposition called the Transmission Hypothesis — the brain and body do not function as producers of consciousness but rather as trans-receivers. The supporting evidence mentioned for this hypothesis is mostly in non-scientific fields, such as, psychoanalysis, psi effect, after death experience, etc. But that does not mean that they are wrong, to separate consciousness from style may be a very sensible thing to do in light of the facts above.

Since memory does not reside in the brain, the functions of the brain need to be re-examined. It is possible that the brain acts as a bridge to consciousness as suggested by Penfield, or the trans-receptor suggested by William James. The similarity between the two is clear, and the brain is the only way to consciousness and memory for both cases. The importance of the brain to memory has been supported by a large number of important studies over a long history. But evidence to suggest that the brain is the only organ associated with memory is lacking, on the contrary, some evidence suggests that the mind may be associated with memory as well.

Does the soul have memory? The question has been around for years. The question also arises after years of transplanting one or other organs into a person and noticing some changes in the recipients. After receiving heart transplants some recipients have noticed dramatic changes in their personalities. For some, there is a great need to eat a lot of Mexican foods when that type of food is not a favorite at all. For others, a sudden love for football, when sports were already hated, came into play.

How can we explain these phenomena? Can the soul feel, think, and remember? The answer may shed light on how people manage memory.

Rollin MacCraty from the Hearthmath University of California has developed tests which show how the mind interprets. His experiments show that the heart responds before the brain when it encounters an emotional event. He concluded that one must have the ability to process emotional data.

To associate mind with memory is a legitimate proposition based on these findings. But there is no medical evidence showing that a change in heart to heart production leads to memory loss. This means the memory is not stored in the mind. Could it be because that heart does not hide memories but is the gateway to memories? What kind of memory can be accessed by the mind? Are other bodies gateways to limited memory too? These questions call for extending memory research to a much broader ground in addition to the brain.

The inevitable question is, if memory is not in the brain, where does memory reside? The short answer is: we don’t know. The pursuit of science is always looking for evidence to support a logical conclusion derived from general science. If the general theory is fundamentally flawed, scientific progress will stop and wait for convincing evidence to change the general principle. Only from there, science will flourish again on a new basis. Materialism has been very successful for the advancement of standard of living and scientific requirements. Recent research in quantum mechanics suggests reality at a more fundamental level may not be wishful thinking at all. Memory can be in physical form that we do not recognize or reside outside of our physical world. We will wait for new evidence to emerge.

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