1 Anime A Day Keeps The Real Girls Away Top Gaming Influencers on YouTube

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Top Gaming Influencers on YouTube

In YouTube and other social media platforms, any niche and any topic could lead you to earn huge profits just by uploading your videos and sharing it with the world. Every view counts, every like is worth a penny and every share is a traffic booster.

Online games have brought a lot of fun and excitement to our online community. As online games and online community increases from time to time, influencers are making more and more profits too. How does it work?

Here’s a list of Top Gaming Influencers on YouTube and how they started:

Mark Fischbach

Also known as Markiplier, a Hawaii-born army dropped out of college where he studied engineering, to grow his career as a YouTube gaming commentator. Specializing in the horror genre, his videos have been viewed over 7 billion times in five years. His ultimate sign of crossover success? He inked a deal with mega-agency William Morris Endeavor in 2016.

Felix Kjellberg

Also known as PewDiePie is the world’s highest-paid YouTube Influencer in 2016. The Swedish gamer would have topped the Gaming category if not for the nine videos he posted in early 2017, which contains Nazi imagery. Maker Studios, a subsidiary of Disney which is also his multi-channel network partner severed ties with him. He was also booted from YouTube’s Red platform and the Google Preferred program. He continues to make millions from YouTube ads alone while his brand is tarnished.

Evan Fong

A Canadian-born also was known as VanossGaming, to pursue his online career full-time, he dropped out of the University of Pennsylvania. He chats and makes jokes with his friends and collaborators while playing games like Call of Duty or Grand Theft Auto on his YouTube Channel. He began voicing a character in adult cartoon series ‘Paranormal Action Squad’ for YouTube Red in 2016.

Sonja Reid

Also known as Omgitsfirefoxx, she first started live-streaming on gaming platform twitch in 2013. She posts highlights to YouTube where she quickly amassed an impressive following which had lead to partnerships with brands like Audi, Syfy, and Intel.

SSSniperWolf

A British-born YouTube influencer is also known as Lia Wolf which specializes in Call of Duty gameplay videos, also dabbles in cosplay and anime. With her over 5 million subscribers and followers, it had led her to partnerships with the likes of Activision, EA, Ubisoft, and Disney. She said, “I wanted to show that girls can play and be good at video games too.”

Jacksepticeye

His real name is Sean McLoughlin. He first took to YouTube in 2012 and then started posting daily in 2013. He is best known for his energetic and funny commentary. With his videos that have been viewed over 7.2 billion times, he is signed with Revelmode, a subnetwork of Disney’s Maker Studios.

DanTDM

Daniel Middleton is a professional gamer who is known online as DanTDM or The Diamond Minecraft. His mastery of popular family-friendly game Minecraft and his following had set him a Guinness World Record in 2016 for amassing the most views for a dedicated Minecraft channel which is 7.9 billion at the time.

TheSyndicateProject

Tom Cassell, the longtime gamer who was the first person to hit 1 million followers on live-streaming platform Twitch way back in 2014. Since then, he has received more than 10 million YouTube subscribers for his playthroughs of game franchises like Halo and Call of Duty. He is now signed to gaming influencer agency 3BlackDot with his fellow list members Sonja Reid and Evan Fong.

SkyDoesMinecraft

Adam Dahlberg, a YouTube veteran at the age of 24. He started as a voice actor for gaming videos back in 2006 and more than a decade on, his main channel focused on the hit kid-friendly game, Minecraft. He boasted over 11 million subscribers and he is now partnered with Amazon, Netflix, and Nintendo and sells merchandise to fans like posters and pillows.

Mari Takahashi

AtomicMari was the only female member of the mega-popular YouTube channel, Smosh Games, until early 2017. She stars in Maricraft, a sub-series with a focus on Minecraft gameplay. The former professional ballerina started hosting her Smosh Pit Weekly way back in 2010. Now, she boasts a social audience of over 2 million and in 2016, she competed as a cast member on the 33rd season of CBS hit called ‘Survivor.’

These YouTubers make millions a year by just playing and narrating video games.

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The Case AGAINST Raw Frozen Pet Foods

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The Case AGAINST Raw Frozen Pet Foods

For some 25 years I have alerted the public to the dangers of exclusively feeding heat processed foods. Companion animal feeding has progressed – actually digressed – from table scraps and real foods the family could spare to today’s “100 % complete” processed foods in primarily kibble form, with some canned and semi-moist also available. The foods appear to be scientific and improved, but they’re far worse for the animals. Not only is nutrient value diminished by heat, but a spectrum of toxins is created. Additionally, the singular feeding of processed food has led to the spurious “100% complete and balanced” claim that is both logically and scientifically flawed.

Entrepreneurs have seized upon this information to create a spate of raw frozen (RF) foods to capture a market niche and to fill the demand from consumers wanting a raw alternative to standard heat processed canned, semi-moist and dried pet foods. This market trend, as with most others, may begin with some truth (raw food is the best food) but gets distorted, if not perverted, once economic opportunity enters the picture. This paper will examine the rationale of these products, their economics and dangers. A more intelligent and healthy alternative will be proposed.

Dangers

1. Weakened Pets And Highly Virulent Organisms – A raw state and the presence of moisture in food provide the perfect environment for the growth of pathogenic organisms. Although prey foods in the wild often putrefy and are teeming with microorganisms, carnivores in the wild are immunologically adapted to these organisms and even benefit from the probiotic effects of some. On the other hand, domestic pets eating sterilized heat processed foods are immunologically compromised and are threatened by mutated and highly virulent pathogenic strains created by modern circumstances and antibiotic resistance. Freezing at appropriate temperatures puts pathogens in a state of arrest but does not eliminate them. Although all foods contain some pathogens, unless they are sterilized (requiring high heat or other measures that greatly diminish the nutritional value and create toxins), it is the load of these pathogens that must be of concern to consumers. RF foods are a potential reservoir and vector of large numbers of pathogens.

2. Producers With Only Kitchen Technology – Because of the minimal technology required to produce a RF pet food, essentially anyone regardless of credentials or expertise can bring a product to market. All one needs to do is grind and mix ingredients in a kitchen, package and put in a freezer. There are no controls over the conditions in the kitchen, the quality of the ingredients or the method of freezing. All these factors can dramatically influence the nutritional value and pathogenic and toxic content of the food. But being in a frozen state hides these potential dangers and therefore poses a threat to both pets and the humans who handle the foods. John Doe can make a food under unknown conditions and with unknown ingredients, label, package, freeze and deliver to consumers or stores without one single control monitoring or impeding the process. Regulators may eventually examine the label if they happen to see it in a store (they will never see it if shipped directly to consumers) and object to some terminology or the like; but, all John needs to do is change the label and all will be well. The product could contain every manner of ingredient, be laced with virulent pathogens, and receive the aegis of regulators … and into the market it goes.

3. Raw Frozen Foods Are Not “100% Complete” – Many RF foods make (or imply) the same spurious 100% complete claim as heat processed foods and thus carry with them the same health dangers. Feeding any food exclusively, let alone a nondescript packaged food containing who-knows-what from who-knows what manufacturing environment, is a bad choice if health and safety are of concern. (See The Truth About Pet Foods by Dr. Wysong).

4. Problems Are Ignored By Producers – RF food pathogens include not only bacteria, but fungi, viruses and parasites. Toxins include those from molds (mycotoxins), bacteria and those created by oxidation. In our study of RF products in the stream of commerce, not one producer addressed these concerns with any technological know-how that we could discern, and most did not even acknowledge the problems potentially lurking in their foods.

5. Freezing Masks Inedibles – Raw meat and organ tissue continues to use ATP (source of energy) until it is exhausted and the tissue enters a state of rigor. Endogenous enzymatic activity within the tissue continues to digest the muscle tissue (proteolysis), softening it until it becomes tender and develops the typical palatable taste. This process is retarded by cold. The freezing of properly aged meat presents few problems, however, any residual ATP present in the tissue during freezing will contract the muscle upon thawing resulting in a more unpalatable product. Mixed RF foods would hide this problem.

6. Free Radical Problems Masked – Essential fatty acids and other health enhancing lipids are critical in the diet. Once foods are ground, mixed, exposed to air, light and pro-oxidants such as heme iron and other metals found in plant and animal tissue, the contained lipids are oxidized to chain reaction producing free-radicals, causing rancidity and oxidant toxins. Freezing at appropriately low temperatures slows this process but does not stop it. The temperature in conventional freezers used for RF foods is not insurance against such oxidation. Because the frozen state masks olfactory detection of rancidity, foods that would be otherwise rejected end up being consumed. The free-radical pathology potential can then work its chronic degenerative disease and immune weakening effects.

7. Freezer Burn Indicates A More Serious Problem – Air reaching the meat surface is the cause for the freezer burns that result in the typical grayish-brown leathery spots. Frozen water on the surface or just beneath it sublimates (from solid state directly to vapor) into the air, causing moisture to be lost from the meat over time resulting in discoloration and a dry, leathery texture. Proper packaging helps maintain quality and prevent freezer burn, however most packaging is permeable to air. The prevalence of freezer burn in RF products speaks to the fact that the product is being oxidized and with that creating free radical toxins to lay the seeds for various degenerative diseases.

8. Display Packaging Causes Free Radicals – Light, as well as air, can promote free radical production. Retail display packaging that is clear or light permeable permits light to catalyze the free radical (disease promoting) process.

9. Frozen Products Are Not Inert To Degradation – In frozen storage there is deterioration in organoleptic quality – meat texture, fat turning granular and crumbly, and discoloration. Microbial enzymes also remain active, especially lipases that break down fats increasing their susceptibility to oxidation.

10. Frozen Foods Can Lead To Acidemia – Tissue degradation and oxidation under high heat freezing (above 29° F), which occurs along the supply chain with most RF products, also leads to acidification. Increasing acid consumption can contribute to acidemia that lies at the base of virtually every chronic degenerative disease plaguing modern pets. (See reference below.)

11. Temperature And Time Are Critical – Ice nucleation, as opposed to ice crystallization, is the primary vector in producing a stable, tasty, frozen product. Freezing is a technically complex process based on the optimum combination of temperature and time, amongst other factors. In the wrong processor’s hands, slips in proper freezing care can lead to a microbiologically unstable product and/or a sensory inferior one. Rapid freezing leads to nucleation, thereby preventing undesirable large ice crystals from forming throughout the product. With rapid freezing the molecules don’t have time to form positions in the characteristic six-sided snowflake, so nucleation overrides crystallization. On the other hand, slow freezing (the usual RF situation) creates large ice crystals, which on thawing causes cellular damage to the meat. This in turn causes meat to “drip” – lose juiciness – and form a perfect liquid medium for bacterial growth.

12. The High Risk In Thawing – Thawing is another critical phase in the freezing process as it involves a change from crystal ice to melted water, which upon reabsorption results in microbial reactivation. Pathogenic bacteria inherently contaminate raw meat, fish, and poultry and will begin to multiply again when the temperature reaches just 29.3º F – which is below freezing! Thus a product that may appear subjectively frozen could be a veritable incubator of pathogens. When consumers attempt to thaw RF foods, dangers dramatically increase. The surface temperature rises long before the interior is sufficiently thawed to serve. For example, it takes about 15 hours for the middle of a 22-pound turkey to get to 32º F. In the interim the surface temperature rises to 53º F. In this amount of time there would be about 4 multiplications

of spoilage bacteria as well as non-detectable multiplications of pathogens. The FDA Model Food Code (1999) recommends that food be thawed in the refrigerator or in flowing water. Thawing RF food in the refrigerator can be inefficient and time consuming, in addition to occupying refrigeration space required for other food items. Most of all, this lengthy procedure can lead to the risk of cross-contamination when the drip from the raw meat comes in contact with ready-to-eat food stored in the refrigerator. In the alternative, consumers usually put the RF food out at room temperature, creating the perfect circumstance for pathogen proliferation.

13. Undetected Freeze-Thaw Cycles – The transit time of RF food from the processor (or John Doe’s kitchen) to the distributor, to the stores and eventually to the consumer is very critical. Although freezer delivery trucks might putatively maintain stable product temperatures, lack of thermocouples fitted in the truck to show temperature readings, and/or inadequate TTIs (time-temperature indicators) can lead to microbiologically infested products without any visible spoilage signs. If the refrigeration in any part of the supply chain fails temporarily and then goes back to frozen (freeze-thaw-freeze), the consumer would never know of this abuse and danger.

14. Supply Chain Time Dangers – Time is the enemy of nutrition and safety. The longer the time between the farmer’s field and the belly, the greater the potential problems. RF foods create the illusion that time is not a factor. Because the frozen state masks toxins and odors, the consumer can be given the impression of value and freshness when, in fact, they may be getting age and toxicity.

15. Microwave Thawing Dangers – If RF foods are thawed in the microwave as a matter of convenience, the value of the food is greatly compromised. Microwaves can virtually boil the liquid phase within cells and electromagnetically alter important food components rendering them not only useless nutritionally, but toxic as well.

16. Mycotoxins Go Undetected – RF foods, particularly those that are a mix of cooked grains (which of course negates the claim for “rawness”) and vegetables, can contain mycotoxins. None of the producers surveyed addressed this problem.

17. Frozen Product Mixtures Make No Health Sense – In an attempt to cover every conceivable base and not miss any opportunity for profit, many RF producers mix every manner of ingredient. For example, watermelon, grains, persimmons, liver, lamb, etc. Not only would creatures in the wild never eat such a mixed gruel at one sitting, such combinations in the fresh state can cause serious digestive stress. Many of the exotic RF ingredients do not keep well in the fresh frozen state (for example, freeze watermelon alone and see what happens, let alone combining it with meat). Also, the combination of fruit sugars with proteins can potentially create toxins such as glycation end products, acrylamides (particularly in those “RF” foods containing cooked carbohydrates) and reaction products of proteins with plant tannins, phenols and flavonoids. Producers “throwing the book” at RF formulations in desperate attempts to capture

market share make evident their motives and their scientific, health and technical naiveté.

18. Parasites Are Ignored – A wide range of parasites can be found within RF foods. Although there is technology in terms of freezing and natural ingredients that can be used to thwart this problem, none of the producers examined employed any of it that we could detect.

Packaging

The best packaging for any food, particularly RF foods, is light- and oxygen-barrier and modified atmosphere flushed. In the absence of this, oxidation proceeds rendering the lipids toxic. None of the producers surveyed employed these technologies that we could detect. Even if they did, the other problems and dangers listed above would remain.

Environmental

We live in an age of pollution and energy diminishment. RF foods require a tremendous amount of refrigeration and equipment all along the supply path. Freezing is energy inefficient and consumes valuable energy resources. Since RF foods are 70% water (at least) there are huge resources wasted in freezing and transporting the tons of this food-contained water through the supply chain. Along with all the equipment, trucking, freezing and frozen water handling inefficiency comes the pollution that parallels such industry.

Quality

In order to make their foods anywhere near affordable, RF producers must search the ingredient market for items that can carry the name of real food but may in fact be only a hollow shell of the real thing. Inferior meat and organ ingredients, heat processed grains and vegetable riffraff (for example “broccoli” on a label may really be broccoli stems – like eating a branch from an apple tree rather than the apple) are used because they are of low cost. That is not to say the marketing brochures and labels do not make it appear as though the brand is not a true gourmet meal. If one reviews the various labels it becomes clear that the race is on to see who can put the fanciest and most exotic ingredients on labels … as if that is the road to pet health. (It is not.) In a brief ingredient survey this is what we found:

Every manner of “pureed” vegetable

Organic beef, rabbit, chicken, turkey, goat, lamb, duck, pork

Organic honey

Organic papaya, persimmons, blueberries, oranges, apples, pears

Organic yogurt

Organic alfalfa, millet, quinoa and barley sprouts

Wheat grass

Nettles

Bok choy

Cultured kefir

Cod liver oil

Capsicum

Watermelon

The reader is challenged to go to the store and total up the cost of such ingredients. Some of the organic ingredients can cost over $15 per pound. But the RF diets containing them can retail for as little as $2-4 per pound. Take away margins for distributors and retail stores and the producer is selling them wholesale for close to a dollar per pound. Now on top of the cost of ingredients is the production, advertising, packaging, freezing and in some cases a sales force making six figures. Something most certainly does not add up. The only thing that can be missing is true ingredient quality. But how can the label say these expensive ingredients are in the food? All the producer needs to do is put in pinches of the expensive ingredients just to say they are there.

The only economic hope for a RF producer is to create the perception of “value added.” They simply could not put the costly ingredients in the food to any degree and make a profit for themselves and all the middlemen up and down the chain. The price they would have to charge would be ridiculous. In effect, in order to be successful, producers must become accomplished at propaganda, not health and nutrition.

Consumers interested in cutting through to the truth do themselves and their pets a service by going to the grocery store with a list of the ingredients ostensibly in a RF diet. Although some RF diets in the lower price range appear to not be attempting to mislead, consumers should do the math comparing the exotic ingredients in

RF pet foods to the prices for the real thing in the store and decide for themselves whether either value or honesty resides in RF products.

Economics

Consumers are under the mistaken assumption that a nondescript package mix of ingredients with an officious label and from a producer posing as a nutritional authority (none of the producers we examined had people at the helm with expertise or credentials) would be the best choice. Little do they realize that they could avoid essentially all of the caveats listed above by simply going to the grocer and buying fresh meats and produce. Pets do not require every nutrient in existence at every meal, as is the impression given by the 100% complete RF producers, and for that matter the rest of the pet food industry. Why would people choose to pay a producer to mix inferior ingredients, package them, label them, freeze them, transport them, advertise them and pay the margin for the producer, the distributor, sales force and the retailer when they can avoid all that cost and put their money into real quality fresh foods? Some people are so convinced that RF manufacturers perform some sort of magic that they will pay to have such foods put in special insulated containers packed with dry ice and overnight delivered! This is particularly ridiculous when one considers that no real convenience – and certainly no health or nutritional value – is added in the process. The consumer still has to go to the store and buy something.

At the grocer a person can buy fresh, raw, untainted meats and produce appropriate for pet carnivores at less than $1 per pound. Slightly out-of-date meats, sale items, trimmings or other still excellent products that cannot be put in the meat case can be even less. True, if you are to purchase the ingredients listed above in perfect human grade organic form (as many RF producers boast) the cost could be far greater. But at least you would know what you are getting. RF foods can cost as much as $7 per pound with an average of about $3-4 per pound (not including shipping to the customer’s door) and most of that cost is going into freezing, transportation and profits through a whole chain of participants. Here is a case where a consumer gets to pay more (a whole lot more) and get less (a whole lot less). Isn’t marketing a wonderful thing?

A Better Alternative

Fresh foods fed in variety are without question the perfect form of nutrition. Appropriately designed supplements to help reduce the risk of food-borne pathogens and oxidation, and to help balance high meat meals and provide a spectrum of vegetable-based nutrients and nutraceuticals can also be of great benefit. Anything less than this is a compromise. The next best alternative is packaged dried raw foods that have incorporated in them food technology to impede pathogens, parasites and oxidation. The low water activity of these products is a great inhibitor of pathogens and the low level of moisture make storage and shipping efficient and environmentally friendly. Good quality table scraps and properly designed dried extruded and canned foods can be mixed into the diet rotation with benefit as well.

Consumers must learn the principles of fresh foods fed in variety and to trust in nature. Every pet owner desires the best for a beloved pet, and is correct in thinking food is an essential element in achieving that goal. But it is incorrect to believe that another person can do more for their pet’s health than they can do themselves. All that is required is a little understanding and use of common sense.

[ NOTE: To that end, the Wysong Institute makes available a free e-Health Letter, a free one-hour CD entitled, “The Thinking Person’s Master Key To Health,” healthy product alternatives designed intelligently with health as the number one objective, and books and recipes for anyone wanting to take control of their own and their family’s and pet’s health. See http://www.wysonginstitute.org ]

References:

Cano-Muñoz, G. (1991). Manual on meat cold store operation and management. FAO Animal Production And Health Paper 92. Food and Agriculture Organization of The United Nations, Rome.

FDA Food Code (1999). U.S. Public Health Service, U.S. Dept. of Health and Human Services. Pub. No. PB99-115925. Washington, D.C. 20250

Food Safety and Inspection Service (2004). FOCUS ON: Freezing. U.S. Dept. of Agriculture. Washington, D.C. 20250

Klose, A.A., Lineweaver, H., and Palmer, H.H. (1968). Thawing turkeys at ambient air temperature. Food Tech. 22:1310-1314.

Muldrew, K. and McGann, L.E. (1999). Cryobiology – A Short Course. http://www.ucalgary.ca/~kmuldrew/cryo_course/cryo_chap13_1.html

Snyder, O. P. (1999). Thawing At Ambient Temperature On The Counter. Hospitality Institute of Technology and Management, St. Paul, MN.

Wysong, R. L. (2004). Nutrition is a Serious Health Matter: The serious responsibility of manufacturing and selling. Wysong Institute, Midland, MI.

Wysong, R. L. (1990). Lipid Nutrition: Understanding Fats and Oils in Health and Disease. Midland, MI: Inquiry Press.

Wysong R. L. (1993). Rationale for Animal Nutrition. Midland, MI: Inquiry Press.

Wysong, R. L. (2000-2005). Wysong e-Health Letter. Wysong Institute, Midland, MI. For subscriptions: [http://www.wysong.net/subscribehl.shtml], and archived at [http://www.wysong.net/archivesehl.shtml]

Wysong, R. L. (2002). The Truth About Pet Foods. Midland, MI: Inquiry Press.

Wysong, R. L. (2003, January 14). What to do to reverse and prevent acidemia. The Wysong e-Health Letter. [http://www.wysong.net/health/post_101_011403.shtml] Wysong Institute, Midland, MI.

Wysong, R. L. (2004). The Thinking Person’s Master Key to Health (60 Minute CD Discussion). Wysong Institute, Midland, MI.

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1 3D Computer Animation Is So Named Because It The History Of 3D Cartoon Animations – When Did It Become Popular?

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The History Of 3D Cartoon Animations – When Did It Become Popular?

Mankind has always thrived on innovation and it is this innovative instinct which inspired our prehistoric cave-dwelling ancestors to make new discoveries. Since then there have been irreversible changes which have totally transformed the face of our planet from those early days but the streak of innovation still remains the same and continues to drive men towards new frontiers.

It is courtesy of this innovative thought process that 3D cartoon animation, which was considered as being nearly impossible prior to the advent of computers, was suddenly found to be within reach with the promise of opening a whole galaxy of possibilities.

Although there is no one single person who can be credited and honored for having discovered this technological advancement, the burgeoning idea of 3D cartoon animation was given shape for the first time in 1961 by Ivan Sutherland who created an interactive sketchpad software package which allowed users to draw images on the computer and replicate them. This acted as an inspiration for a number of professionals dedicated to this field and the final breakthrough came during the 1980s’ when the first image editing program in form of the Adobe Photoshop was created and subsequently released. The immense global popularity of the concept could be gauged by the fact that most of the media carriers like movies, advertisements and even magazines incorporated its application in their field of business.

The credit of popularizing the effective usage of 3D cartoon animation all over the world lies undisputedly with Disney since it is in this organization that animation was utilized to its optimum potential and released to reveal its true caliber by individuals who were truly in search of exceptional results. Therefore, while movies like ‘Beauty and the Beast’ and ‘Aladdin’ were perfection personified in the field of 2D animation, it was ‘Toy Story’ in 1995 which held the honor of being the first extremely successful 3D cartoon animation film produced by Disney to be followed by many more in its wake.

Apart from movies, 3D cartoon animation has been successfully used in the fields of education and advertising as well as it not only focuses on people, animals and moving figures but on background illustrations as well. While 3D cartoon animation in the field of education has been primarily used to create game design programs, its utility in the world of advertising was proved by an organization named Pixar who relied on short and sweet 3D cartoon animation films to sell their products.

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1 3 Of The Animals Will Die Scientific Study Chimpanzees – Towards Human and Associated Protections

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Chimpanzees – Towards Human and Associated Protections

As scientists amass data, chimpanzees are moving closer towards human. They are sentient, self-aware beings with strong cognitive skills and a proven ability to communicate, reason, express emotions, adapt, and even manipulate and deceive. With genetic material 98.5% identical to that of humans, chimpanzees are more similar to people than gorillas. Consequently, serious ethical implications exist regarding chimpanzee captivity and use in laboratory experiments. Below is a close examination of chimpanzees:

Chimpanzees live in areas comprising 21 African countries that encompass grasslands, dry savannah and rainforests. They often live in communities that range from 20-100 members. Two species of chimpanzee exist – the common chimpanzee (which has four subspecies) and the Bonobo (also known as the “pygmy chimpanzee”) The former subsists on a diet of fruit and meat, the latter solely on fruit. Their average life span ranges from 40-50 years. Chimpanzees are currently listed as endangered primarily due to deforestation and poaching.

I. Brain Size/Structure/Nervous System:

Chimpanzees have a brain and nervous system comparable to that of a human. They learn extremely quickly, possess the ability to produce creative responses, express emotions (through sounds, gestures and facial expressions), influence their surroundings, and share the same qualitative experience in pain despite a cerebral cortex that is about 1/3 the size of that in humans.

The average chimpanzee brain weighs 437 g versus 1.3 kg for the average human. When comparing brain size to body size – the Encephalization Quotient (EQ), the average chimpanzee brain registers about 2.49 (third to the 7.44 and 5.31 EQ of the average human and dolphin; the Rhesus Monkey comes in fourth at 2.09). This indicates a high-level of cognitive ability.

Both humans and chimpanzees engage in the same sleep patterns. This includes the stages of rapid-eye movement (REM) sleep, indicating both are likely capable of dreaming.

II. Social Setting:

Chimpanzees are exceptionally social, consistent with humans, other great apes, dolphins and other creatures displaying high levels of intelligence.

They spend equal amounts of time on land and in trees (where they build nests to sleep, though some chimpanzees in the Fongoli savannah in southeast Senegal spend time in caves) and move from territory to territory foraging for food. Although a typical community can number up to 100, chimpanzees often spend time in smaller parties; mothers and their dependent children, though refuse to separate. Each chimpanzee family (to which individuals have strong bonds) is headed by an alpha or dominant male (bonobos, though are led by females) that leads them in hunting, territorial protection, and war. Each community is hierarchical in nature where strength and intelligence bring added respect. Females are the only gender that move freely between communities.

Chimpanzees enjoy prefer sharing rewards with a companion. A study by Alicia Melis at the Ngamba Island Chimpanzee Sanctuary in Uganda documented in Altruism ‘in-built’ in humans by Helen Briggs (BBC News, 3 March 2006) found that chimpanzees recognize and value the importance of collaboration. When such collaboration was necessary in an experiment that required the simultaneous pulling of two ends of a rope to obtain a tray of food, chimpanzees consistently selected the optimal partner, which in Melis’ words “was a level of understanding [only seen in] humans.”

Within their communities, chimpanzees maintain intricate social networks where touching, grooming (which creates calm and strengthens friendships), and embracing are important aspects in preserving cohesiveness. Play is also an important part of a chimpanzee’s life, especially among males when they are young.

Chimpanzees are among the few species that teach their young skills and culture (which is transferred between communities by females relocating between groups). Young chimpanzees between 6 and 8 years of age (primarily taught by their mothers) spend much of their time learning the social skills, community’s culture, and tool making through observation, imitation, and repetitious practice. At the same time, though, studies per Recent studies illustrate which traits humans and apes have in common – and which they don’t (Anne Casselman, Smithsonian.com, 11 October 2007) indicate “human children have much more sophisticated skills… dealing with imitating another’s solution to a problem, communicating non-verbally and reading the intentions [of] others.”

The typical chimpanzee pregnancy lasts 8 months. Young chimpanzees are weaned from their mothers by three years of age, and reach puberty threes years later. For chimpanzees, puberty lasts three years.

When it comes to treatment of their dead, chimpanzees often pay frequent visits to view and grieve over the deceased’s body. Afterwards, they cover it with leaves and branches before moving on.

III. Multi-modal Sensory Perception:

Chimpanzees and humans utilize five senses (sight, hearing, smell, taste, and touch) to perceive the world around them. Sight and smell, two critical senses utilized by chimpanzees are discussed below.

The morphological and anatomical structure of a chimpanzee’s eye is similar to that of humans. Likewise their vision is also similar. As a result, unlike most non-primate mammals that are dicromats (their color vision is based on two colors), primates (including chimpanzees and humans), are trichromatic. When their retinal nerves capture light, their brain utilizes three fixed wavelengths/colors to create a rich, colored environment. As a consequence for their similar morphological and anatomical eye structure and visual processing, chimpanzees can suffer from some of the same impairments as humans (e.g. Lucky, a male chimpanzee in Japan suffers from color blindness).

Chimpanzees have an excellent sense of smell, which plays a critical role in their social interactions. Aside from facial recognition, chimpanzees use smell to identify each other and enhance their understanding of another’s mood since each emits a distinctive odor based on pheromones that can be found in their feces, urine, and glandular secretions.

Aside from sight and smell, chimpanzees also rely on hearing (utilizing a similar auditory range as humans), and to a lesser extent, touch and taste. It should be noted that chimpanzees, like humans, if given a choice, prefer sweets.

IV. Shape Recognition:

Studies have shown chimpanzees, like humans are “more sensitive to concave deformation (important for constructing three-dimensional objects) than convex deformation.” They also view shapes and mentally process two-dimensional objects in the same manner as humans.[1]

Based on this similarity and the similar structure of their eye and visual processing abilities, it is likely chimpanzees can match simple and complex shapes. More research, though, needs to be done in this area.

V. Mirror Self Recognition (MSR):

The ability to possess sentience/self-awareness (to think about oneself in the physical and mental realms) illustrates a complex level of abstract thinking that uncommon among animals. Chimpanzees possess this self-awareness and are capable of symbolic thought.

Studies have shown chimpanzees can recognize themselves in a mirror and are aware of their own behavior and body. During MSR tests, chimpanzees showed they possess selective attention (they can pay attention to themselves in a mirror, aware they are viewing themselves instead of another animal). When chimpanzees were marked with non-toxic odorless red dye on one eyebrow and the opposite ear, they went to a mirror and carefully examined the markings on their bodies. Scientific evidence also indicates that chimpanzees and other great apes possess to some degree, “theory of other minds,” in which they recognize individuals have their own beliefs. It is also highly probable that chimpanzees like dolphins and humans, can discern the difference between reality and television.

VI. Language/Communication and Emotions:

Although chimpanzees lack the vocal cords, ability to talk and make a sound for every object as humans, they communicate through sounds (e.g. barking, hooting, screaming, etc.), facial expressions (which require extensive attention to detail or viewing more than one aspect of a facial expression so that subtleties of meaning, which are not always obvious, are interpreted correctly), posturing, and gestures (with hands, feet, and limbs). Although the majority of chimpanzee sounds are related to a specific emotion, some can be associated with more than one emotion. In addition, each chimpanzee, for identification reasons, has its own distinct calls consistent with humans and dolphins having their own distinct voices and sounds, respectively.

Chimpanzees utilize intentional communication to meet individual and group needs and to convey their feelings, which are an essential part of their social behavior. Certain communication behaviors are passed down through generations.

A brief summary of several chimpanzee emotions and their associated sounds is listed below:

1. Anger: Waa (bark)
2. Distress: Hoo
3. Enjoyment of body contact: Lip smack
4. Enjoyment of food: Aah
5. Enjoyment/Excitement: Pant (hoot)
6. Fear: Wraa or Pant (bark)
7. Hostility: Screaming

A brief summary of chimpanzee emotions and their associated facial expressions is also listed below:

1. Aggression: Display of teeth in a wide open mouth with erect facial hairs
2. Fear/Distress: Display of teeth with lips pulled back horizontally
3. Intense Fear: Full open grin
4. Playful: Slightly open mouth in a relaxed position
5. Pouting/Begging: Puckered lips as if offering a kiss
6. Submission: Horizontal puckered lips

Chimpanzees communicate about “what,” “where,” and “who” but the past or the future. Their communication is instantaneous based on the present. However, per Deborah Fouts, co-director of the Chimpanzee and Human Communication Institute reported by Brandon Keim, Chimps: Not Human, But Are They People? (Wired Science, 14 October 2008), “They do remember the past [and can] understand the concept that something will happen later.”

Chimpanzees are also capable of understanding American Sign Language (ASL) gestures, and can learn associations between symbols, sounds, and objects without specific reinforcement or direct intervention. In the early 1970s, Washoe, a female chimpanzee followed by four other chimpanzees learned 100+ signs. Presently, Washoe can use up to 240 signs and even taught her adopted son ASL without human intervention.

Another female chimpanzee, Lucy, even recognized that word order makes a difference when her trainer signed to tickle him, instead following her request to tickle her. However, it is unlikely that chimpanzees can conceptualize virtual reality from sounds and symbols as people do.

However, per Valerie A. Kuhlmeier and Sarah T. Boysen, Chimpanzees Recognize Spatial and Object Correspondences Between a Scale Model and Its Referent (Psychological Science, Vol. 13, Issue 1, 19 March 2002), chimpanzees like young children, “are sensitive to both object and spatial-relational correspondences between a model and its referent (a person or thing to which a linguistic expression (e.g. word, symbol) refers).”

Facial recognition is another important part of communication. Consistent with humans, chimpanzees exhibit species-specific face recognition, more readily discriminating between chimpanzee faces than those of other species. However, chimpanzee infants that receive significant exposure to human faces are better at discriminating between human faces. Per Julie Martin-Malivel and Kazunori Okada in Human and chimpanzee face recognition in chimpanzees: Role of exposure and impact on categorical perception (Psycnet, American Psychological Association, December 2007) “exposure is a critical determinant in conspecific and nonconspecific face recognition. Furthermore, per Development of face recognition in infant chimpanzees (Masako Myowa-Yamakoshi, et. al. Science Direct. 20 December 2005) chimpanzee babies, consistent with human newborns, prefer to study facial patterns over non-facial patterns as they develop during their earliest days.

Chimpanzees are generally affectionate creatures that show emotions towards their own as well as other species. They show concern for ill or injured members, mourn the deceased (to the point that a healthy young male died of a broken heart a few weeks after the death of his mother), show excitement and joy when playing, as well as fear and concern. Consistent with humans, chimpanzees possess emotions that last for a short duration and moods that can last for longer durations. Furthermore, studies show baby chimpanzees have the same emotional range as human babies, but better self-control when it comes to uncontrollable crying. The only human emotion chimpanzees do not appear to possess is spite.

VII. Memory:

Chimpanzees have excellent memory systems. They can memorize faces, symbols and numbers, and learn specific behaviors that can result in either adverse or rewarding experiences.

Consistent with humans, chimpanzees retain a better memory of events that elicit emotions than those, which are neutral.

Chimpanzees also possess exceptional spatial memory, which per Chimps mentally map fruit trees (Matt Walker, BBC News, 6 August 2009) enables them to remember the exact location of “a single tree among more than 12,000 others within a patch of forest.” Per Forest chimpanzees remember the location of numerous fruit trees (Emmanuelle Normant, Simone Dagui Ban, and Christophe Boesch, Animal Cognition, 31 May 2009) such spatial memory “allows [chimpanzees] to remember the location of numerous resources and use this information to select the most attractive resources.”

In addition, chimpanzees can also make plans (debunking earlier thoughts that only humans are capable such future planning). Since 1997, Santino, a male chimp at a zoo north of Stockholm, Sweden, while calm, has repeatedly created arsenals of stones to throw at spectators for a future “dominance display.” More impressively, he even figured out how to detect and break off weak pieces of concrete in his enclosure to add to his cache.

VIII. Tools and Problem Solving:

Chimpanzees and other great apes are effective users of crude tools (e.g Fongoli savannah chimpanzees use spears to hunt and kill bushbabies (a nocturnal primate), Congo chimpanzees use a toolkit comprised of thin “brush-tipped” sticks and leaf blades to “fish” for termites, and large clubs to break open bee hives to attain honey, Nimba Mountain (Guinea) chimpanzees use wooden cleavers, stabilizing wedges and stone anvils to crack open and chop up Treculia fruits; all utilize crumpled leaves as sponges to soak drinking water from tree hollows). In fact they have been using tools for more than 4300 years based on a discovery of stone tools (similar in size and dimension to tools used by today’s chimpanzees) utilized to smash nuts (linked to species eaten by modern chimpanzees) in Tai National Park, Ivory Coast. Furthermore, ill or injured chimpanzees often rely on medicinal or herbal plants as a remedy for healing and/or to alleviate their pain and suffering.

Analogous with tool use, chimpanzees can also reason and solve problems. Through the use of abstract reasoning, they, like humans can solve problems without training (e.g. retrieve bananas that are out of reach through purposeful logic).

When it comes to mathematics, specifically remembering numbers, young chimpanzees have outperformed college students (when the numbers stayed on a screen for.4 of a second versus.7 of second when both performed comparably) and a British memory champion, Ben Pridmore. Based on I’m the champion! Ape trounces the best of the human world in memory competition (Fiona Macrae, Mail Online, 26 January 2008), Amyumu, a 7 year-old male chimpanzee in Japan performed three times as well as Pridmore when it came to remembering the positions of numbers on a computer screen.

IX. Art and Culture:

When given the proper tools (e.g. paint, paint brushes, and canvas) chimpanzees possess the talent to be exceptional artists whose abstract paintings rival some of the masters. Congo (1954-1964), a male chimpanzee painted over 400 abstracts from the age of 2 to 4 years, after picking up a pencil and drawing a line without human prodding. During a 2005 auction, three of Congo’s paintings went for £14,400 while a painting by Andy Warhol (1928-1987) and a small sculpture by French Master Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841-1919) generated insufficient interest and were withdrawn.[2] Since Congo, other chimpanzees have followed, producing equally impressive works (e.g. a female chimpanzee, Melody, creates paintings that sell for between $1000 for individuals and $7500 for triptychs and a notable three year-old female chimpanzee, Asuka, has already created 90 paintings, some of which have been exhibited in Tokyo galleries).

Chimpanzees have an innate ability to discern and enjoy music. Based on scientific studies involving infant chimpanzees (reported by the BBC on July 30, 2009), they, like humans, prefer consonant over dissonant music. Furthermore, when music was played to lift the spirits of chimpanzees at Mysore zoo in southern India, one who had previously performed at a circus, was observed dancing.

Chimpanzees also have preferences for television. Per Kate Baker, enrichment coordinator at the Yerkes Regional Primate Center, Atlanta, GA, as recounted in Unneeded Lab Chimps Face Hazy Future (David Berreby, The New York Times, 4 February 1997), they enjoy National Geographic shows, programs about chimpanzees and the use of tools, and shows featuring people arguing.

X. Altruism/Morality:

Chimpanzees and other great apes possess a sense of morality and fairness, despite acts of barbarism during combat. Per Monkeys and apes know right from wrong, scientists say (Daily Mail Reporter, 15 February 2009) they “offer selfless help and empathize with fellow animals in times of trouble [and] even appear to have consciences and the ability to feel a sense of obligation.” Consistent with this empathy and selflessness, female chimpanzees mirror human behavior, playing an integral role to mediate conflicts; if two male combatants cannot resolve their differences, the females often step in and remove rocks from their hands – likely to strengthen their community since division and discord bring weakness and vulnerability.

Per Emory University, Atlanta, GA studies, chimpanzees also expect equal rewards for performing the same tasks (they sulked and refused to participate any further when others received greater rewards), indicative of a sense of justice and fairness. Furthermore, they were often willing to assist others (including humans) even when there was no reward.

When a chimpanzee deviates from the community’s social code of conduct it is punished collectively by the group (as illustrated by a group of chimpanzees at the Arnhem Zoo in the Netherlands that punished chimpanzees that showed up late for dinner since none ate until all were present).

In addition, similar to humans, chimpanzees remember who did them favors (e.g. groomed them) and who did them wrong. They are more likely to share food with the former. At the same time, chimpanzees possess the ability to forgive as described in a passage in Frans de Waal’s book, Peacemaking among Primates (Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 1990) – “Nikki, the leader of the group, has slapped Hennie during a passing charge. Hennie, a young adult female of nine years, sits apart for a while feeling with her hand the spot on the back of the neck where Nikkie hit her. Then she seems to forget about the incident; she lies down in the grass, staring in the distance. More than 15 minutes later, Hennie slowly gets up and walks straight to a group that includes Nikkie… [and] approaches Nikkie with a series of soft pant grunts. Then she stretches out her arm to offer Nikkie the back of her hand for a kiss. Nikkie’s hand-kiss consists of taking Hennie’s whole hand rather unceremoniously into his mouth. This contact is followed by a mouth-to-mouth kiss.”

Furthermore, chimpanzees also have the ability to perform altruistic acts even if most are limited to cases where another actively seeks help. Examples are as follows:

1. When Knuckles who was born in 1999 with cerebral palsy, a debilitating condition (that afflicts 5,000-10,000 babies per year in the United States) that impairs mobility (prior to therapy, he would sit in place and only eat when fed), was introduced to other chimpanzees housed at the Center for Great Apes, Wauchula, FL, a sanctuary for orangutans and chimpanzees, they were cognizant of his condition. They consistently treated him with kindness and gentleness (e.g. spending time sitting with him, playing with him, and grooming him).

2. Per Scientist Finds the Beginnings of Morality in Primate Behavior by Nicholas Wade (The New York Times, 20 March 2007), “Chimpanzees, who cannot swim, have drowned in zoo moats trying to save others,” and often “console the loser” after a fight between two combatants.

3. A study by Felix Warneken and his colleagues at the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Anthropology in Leipzig, Germany published in the June 27, 2007 issue of New Scientist (Chimps may display genuine altruism by Nora Schultz) found that 67% of semi-wild chimpanzees altruistically assisted an unfamiliar human who had been struggling to reach a stick even though they had to climb a 2½-meter rope with no reward. In addition, another group of chimpanzees, taught to unpeg a chain and open a door, consistently did so for chimpanzees whom they were unfamiliar with, when they attempted to open the door without success.

4. A study by Japanese researchers at Kyoto University’s Primate Research Institute (Kyoto, Japan) published in National Geographic (Chimps Display Humanlike Good Will, 19 October 2009) found that chimpanzees trained to use sticks to retrieve straws (to drink juice) that were out of reach, utilized their training to assist others that had not been trained 75% of the time when these chimpanzees, whom they were unfamiliar with, appeared to request assistance.

XI. Warfare:

Consistent with human behavior, chimpanzees (with the exception of bonobos) are fiercely territorial and may engage in war albeit primitive combat analogous to prehistoric man. Even though chimpanzees use rocks or their hands and feet in raw combat, the day of using spears and other crude weapons may not be far behind. At isolated times, chimpanzees have also displayed the same tendencies as humans for hate, rape, torture, mutilation, and genocide (documented in two certified cases).

The longest Chimpanzee war – the Gombe War (1974-1977), which originated when the Kasekela Community split into two groups (with the new group, the Kahama community, moving into a new valley in 1972) and ended in genocide was documented by Jane Goodall in The Chimpanzees of Gombe (Belknap Press, 1986). Starting in 1974, the Kasekela males formed a group and advanced into Kahama territory. Once there, they initiated violent aggression against the Kahama chimpanzees with the intent to kill since bodily assaults did not cease until their victims were completely incapacitated and mortally injured. During the attacks that lasted into 1977, the Kasekela males displayed “considerable excitement and enjoyment” as they anticipated capturing and actively killed their victims (who were mutilated and cannibalistically eaten or partially eaten). The Gombe War only ended when the Kahama community was completely exterminated and their lands taken over by the Kasekela community.

Per Wired for war? (World Science, February 2005), in August 1998 “researchers in Uganda [observed] a group of male chimpanzees beating on and swaggering around another male chimp’s freshly killed body. Its windpipe, fingernails, [toenails] and testicles were torn out.” Per Apes of war… is it in our genes? the dead chimpanzee “was [also] covered with 30 or 40 puncture wounds and lacerations [with its] ribs sticking up out of the rib cage.” Based on the deceased’s injuries, it “was clear that some of the males had held him down, while the others attacked.”

Generally when chimpanzees engage in war, a group of males sneak into the territory of another community and seek isolated males or older females (and sometimes their young) to attack. Consistent with human hunter-gatherer societies (of which war is endemic with 64% engaging in fighting every two years per Apes of war… is it in our genes?) chimpanzees often fight over resources such as food and females – often exploiting and plundering captured territory. Ironically, human activities such as logging, as reported in the May 13, 1997 edition of The New York Times are also contributing to chimpanzee wars as their habitats are taken away forcing communities to retreat into the territory of other communities.

XII. Lab Research and Ethical Implications:

With conclusive proof that chimpanzees and other great apes are sentient beings (which enhance adaptability and survival) possessing human traits (e.g. emotions such as stress and fear), similar nervous systems (that enable them to experience the same qualitative pain and suffering), and greater than 90% identical genetic code, ethical factors dictate that lab research, which forcibly utilizes them as unconsenting test subjects be banned, especially since such experiments have yielded few, if any tangible benefits.

A review of 749 published experiments involving chimpanzees over a ten year period from 1995-2004 as stated in Chimpanzee experiments: Questionable contributions to biomedical progress by Andrew Knight (AATEX, 6th World Congress on Alternatives & Animal Use in the Life Sciences, Tokyo, Japan, 21-25 August 2007) found that only 14.7% of such experiments utilized “well developed methods for combating human diseases” and most notably, “no chimpanzee study made an essential contribution, or in most cases, a significant contribution of any kind.”

Per Non-Human Primates in Medical Research: Sensible or Dispensible by Jarrod Bailey, Ph.D. (September 2006), “every area of [non-human primate (NPH)] research provides evidence against its utility” based on the below scientific evidence:

1. NHPs do not develop AIDS when infected with HIV; experimental results cannot be confidently extrapolated to humans [and] none of NHP-tested vaccines succeeded in humans [despite billions of dollars in expenses].

2. NHP experiments have failed to contribute to [understand] the Hepatitis (HPV) infection, [create vaccines], and understand hepatocellular damage.

3. NHP models have failed to inform us of Alzheimer’s disease pathology [since they do not get Alzheimer’s].

4. Fundamental differences in the symptoms and pathology of Parkinson’s Disease exist between humans and NHPs.

5. Of approximately 150 drugs for strokes found successful in animals (often NHPs), none have been successful in humans.

6. Hormone replacement therapy found effective against heart disease and strokes in NHPs increased the risk in humans.

7. Significant differences exist in viral infection and disease between humans and NHPs.

8. Genetic expression when it comes to disease (e.g. 20 out of 333 genes implicated in human cancer are different in NHPs) is too dissimilar with commonality found in only 20% of proteins between humans and NHPs.

Although research on chimpanzees and other great apes is banned in many countries, it is still carried out in the United States, despite protections under the Chimpanzee Health Improvement, Maintenance and Protection Act.

Perhaps the most compelling argument for banning the use of chimpanzees as test subjects in laboratories is a study that found that surviving lab chimpanzees suffered from similar levels of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (which can be long-lasting and whose symptoms include but are not limited to anger, fear, depression, anxiety, etc.) as human torture victims. Lab confined chimpanzees (often held in caged, isolated, unpredictable environments over which they have no control) have engaged in self-mutilation due to the severe physical and mental distress they are forced to endure. Per Undercover Investigation Reveals Cruelty to Chimps at Research Lab (The Humane Society of the United States, 4 March 2009), “infant monkeys scream as they are forcibly removed from their mothers… chimpanzees exhibit intense fear… when forced to move toward [a needle] in their squeeze cages [and one chimpanzee, Siafu even] attempted to plead with staff [using] crude begging gestures.”

When the British Government banned the use of chimpanzees for research in 1986, recounted by Steve Connor, Science Editor for The Independent in Shut chimpanzee research center, say scientists (27 March 2001), it was cited as “a matter of morality. The cognitive and behavioural [sic] characteristics and qualities of these animals mean it is unethical to treat them as expendable for research.” Not surprisingly, the European Union is moving towards banning the use of chimpanzees in labs.

Per Connor, “the development of new techniques in genetic engineering, which has allowed many ‘models’ of human diseases to be created using [genetically-manipulated] rats and mice, has undermined the case of using chimps in medical research” as has the high cost in terms of dollars, pain and suffering, and ethics.

XIII. Legal Precedents towards Species-Practical Human Rights:

As calls for banning chimpanzee research broaden, governments and courts are also establishing legal precedents to recognize their special status primarily because of their self-awareness and ability to think about oneself in the physical and mental realms, which illustrate a complex level of abstract thinking found most notably in humans.

In 1986, Britain became the first country to ban experimentation on chimpanzees and other great apes. New Zealand’s parliament followed in 1999 with the Netherlands and Australia doing likewise in 2002 and 2003, respectively.

In September 2005, a Bahia, Brazil court presided by Judge Edmundo Lúcio da Cruz granted Habeas Corpus protection to a 23 year-old chimpanzee, Suiça so that she could be transferred from confinement in a zoo’s cage with little intellectual stimulation to a sanctuary where she could enjoy a social life (with 35 other chimpanzees), the possibility of raising a family, and open spaces. In doing so, Suiça, who never made it to the sanctuary, having died unexpectedly, became the first animal recognized as a legal subject.

In June 2008, Spain’s parliament passed a precedent-setting resolution granting human rights to chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, and orangutans stating that these non-human hominids should enjoy the right to life, freedom and that their bodily integrity be protected against torture.

In December 2009 as reported by University World News (20 December 2009), “a ban on using great apes such as chimpanzees, bonobos, gorillas, and orang-utans for scientific testing [was] broadly accepted” by the European Parliament and EU Council of Ministers subject to minor changes in text for final approval.

XIV. Conclusion:

Based on the remarkable cognitive abilities of chimpanzees, the fact that they exceptionally close to human and drawing nearer as scientific evidence mounts, it is critical that they and other sentient creatures (e.g. great apes, dolphins) be afforded protections to recognize their special status – namely that captivity is only used to conserve the species. When such captivity is necessary, it is imperative that they be given the respect and intellectual stimulation they deserve, their individuality is honored, and most importantly, laws be enacted to prohibit their use as unconsenting guinea pigs subjected to unnecessary torture, pain, and suffering.

_______

[1] T. Matsuno and M. Tomonaga. An advantage for concavities in shape perception by chimpanzees. (Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan. 3 March 2007).

[2] Chimpanzees as Artists. Artists Ezine. 29 December 2009. http://www.artistsezine.com/WhyChimp.htm

Additional Reference:

Chimpanzees. Global Action Network. (Montreal, Canada. 2005). 26 December 2009. http://www.gan.ca/animals/chimpanzees.en.html

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0 Animals That Sacrificed Their Lives For Their Babies Eid Ul Adha. Muslims Best Religious Ceremony. 22 Dec 2018 in Bangladesh and 21 Dec in East Countres

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Eid Ul Adha. Muslims Best Religious Ceremony. 22 Dec 2018 in Bangladesh and 21 Dec in East Countres


mply translated in to the local language, such as English Feast of the Sacrifice, In german Opferfest, Dutch Offerfeest, Romanian Sărbătoarea Sacrificiului, and Hungarian Áldozati ünnep. In Spanish it is recognized as Fiesta del Cordero[4] or Fiesta del Borrego (both meaning “festival with the lamb”). It is also known as Id ul Baqarah inside Egypt, Saudi Arabia and in the Middle East, as Eid è Qurbon inside Iran, Kurban Bayramı (“the Holiday of Sacrifice”) in Turkey, [5] Bakara Eid inside Trinidad, Qorbani Eid (কোরবানী ঈদ) in Bangladesh, Eid el-Kebir inside Morocco, Tfaska Tamoqqart in the Berber language of Jerba, Iduladha or perhaps Qurban in Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia and the Philippines, Bakri Idh (“Goat Eid”) in elements of Pakistan and India and Tabaski or Tobaski in Senegal and West Africa [6][7][8][9] (most probably borrowed from your Serer language – an ancient Serer religious festival[10][11][12][13]).

The following names are employed as other names of Eid al-Adha:

Ê¿Ä«d al-aá¸á¸¥Ä / Ê¿Ä«d ul-aá¸á¸¥Ä means “sacrifice feast” [14] is employed Urdu, Hindi, Assamese, Bengali, Gujarati, and Austronesian languages such since Malay and Indonesian.

Eid al-Kabir means “the Greater Eid” (the “Lesser Eid” being Eid al-Fitr) [15] is employed in Yemen, Syria, and North Africa (Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, and also Egypt). Translations of “Big Eid” or “Greater Eid” are found in Pashto (لوی اختر Loy Axtar), Kashmiri (Baed Eid), Urdu and also Hindi (Baṛī Īd), Bengali (বড় ঈদ Boro Id), Tamil (Peru NÄl, “Great Day”) and also Malayalam (Bali Perunnal, “Great Day of Sacrifice”).

“Bakr-Eid” that word of Bakr described al-Baqara (in Arabic) means “The Cow”. Bakr-Eid is used inside Urdu and Hindi language. Also, the translation of Bakr-Eid as Id ul Baqarah is employed in Egypt, Saudi Arabia and in the Middle East

Qurbon Hayiti (Kurban Eid) is employed in Uzbekistan

“Hajj celebration day” [6][7][8](in local language: Lebaran Haji) is employed in Malaysian and Indonesian, in the Philippines

Etymology

The reason behind sacrifice is dhabih which means tear, cut, rend, or slit. Its technical meaning is known as slaughtering or sacrificing of special animals in a spectacular way. [16]

Origin

Abraham, about to sacrifice his son

One with the main trials of Abraham’s life was to face the control of God to sacrifice his dearest possession, his son. [5] The son just isn’t named in the Quran, but Muslims believe it to become Ishmael, whereas it is mentioned as Isaac in the Somebody. Upon hearing this command, Abraham prepared to submit to can of God. [17] During this preparation, Shaitan (the Devil) tempted Abraham and his family by wanting to dissuade them from carrying out God’s commandment, and Abraham owned Satan away by throwing pebbles at him. In commemoration of these rejection of Satan, stones are thrown at symbolic pillars through the Stoning of the Devil during Hajj rites. [16]

When Abraham experimented with cut his throat on mount Arafat, [17] he was astonished to find out that his son was unharmed and instead, he found a ram [5] that has been slaughtered. Abraham had passed the test by his willingness to undertake God’s command. [18][19]

This story is known as the Akedah in Judaism (Binding of Isaac) and originates inside the Tora, [20] the first book of Moses (Genesis, Ch. 22). The Quran identifies the Akedah as follows: [21]

100 “O my Lord! Offer me a righteous (son)! “

101 So We gave him the good thing of a boy ready to suffer and forbear.

102 Next, when (the son) reached (the age of) (serious) work together with him, he said: “O my son! I see in vision that we offer thee in sacrifice: Now see what is thy see! ” (The son) said: “O my father! Do as thou fine art commanded: thou will find me if Allah so wills a single practicing Patience and Constancy! “

103 So when they acquired both submitted their wills (to Allah), and he had put him prostrate on his forehead (for sacrifice),

104 We referred to as out to him “O Abraham!

105 “Thou hast already happy the vision! ” – thus indeed do We reward those that do right.

106 For this was obviously a trial-

107 And We ransomed him using a momentous sacrifice:

108 And We left (this blessing) for your pet among generations (to come) in later times:

109 “Peace and also salutation to Abraham! “

110 Thus indeed do We reward those that do right.

111 For he was one of our assuming Servants.

112 And We gave him the good news of Isaac – a prophet – one of many Righteous.

- Quran, sura 37 (As-Saaffat), ayat 100-112[22]

Abraham had shown that his love for God superseded all others: that he would lay down his own life or the lives of the dearest to him in submission to God’s command. Muslims commemorate this ultimate act of sacrifice annually during Eid al-Adha. While Abraham was prepared to make a great ultimate sacrifice, God ultimately prevents the sacrifice, additionally signifying any particular one should never sacrifice a human life, especially not in the particular name of God.

Eid prayers

Main article: Eid prayers

Eid prayer inside Badshahi Mosque

Devotees offer the Eid al-Adha prayers at the particular mosque. The Eid al-Adha prayer is performed any time following your sun completely rises up to just before the entering regarding Zuhr time, on the 10th of Dhu al-Hijjah. In the wedding of a force majeure (e. g. natural disaster), the prayer could be delayed to the 11th of Dhu al-Hijjah and then for the 12th of Dhu al-Hijjah. [23]

Eid prayers must be supplied in congregation. Participation of women in the prayer congregation may differ from community to community. [24] It consists of two rakats (units) with seven takbirs inside the first Raka’ah and five Takbirs in the second Raka’ah. Regarding Sunni Muslims, Salat al-Eid differs from the five daily canonical prayers because no adhan (call to prayer) or iqama (call) is pronounced for your two Eid prayers. [25][26] The salat (prayer) is then accompanied by the khutbah, or sermon, by the Imam.

At the conclusion with the prayers and sermon, Muslims embrace and exchange greetings with an added (Eid Mubarak), give gifts and visit one another. Many Muslims also take this possibility to invite their non-Muslim friends, neighbours, co-workers and classmates to their Eid festivities to raised acquaint them about Islam and Muslim culture. [27]

A cow operator is cleaning a cow before taking cattle market for Eid-Ul-Adha inside Boshila, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Traditions and practices

See also: Eid delicacies and Eidi (gift)

Cookies of Eid

During Eid al-Adha, distributing meat amongst the people, chanting the takbir out loud before the Eid prayers around the first day and after prayers throughout the four days regarding Eid, are considered essential parts of this important Islamic celebration. [28]

The takbir consists of: [29]

الله أكبر الله أكبر

لا إله إلا الله

والله أكبر الله أكبر

ولله الحمد

AllÄhu akbar, AllÄhu akbar

lÄ ilÄha illÄ-AllÄh

WallÄhu akbar, AllÄhu akbar

walillÄhi l-ḥamdu[a]

Guys, women, and children are expected to dress in their finest clothing to execute Eid prayer in a large congregation in an open waqf (“stopping”) industry called Eidgah or mosque. Affluent Muslims who can afford it sacrifice their utmost halal domestic animals (usually a cow, but can also be described as a camel, goat, sheep, or ram depending on the region) being a symbol of Abraham’s willingness to sacrifice his only son. [30] The particular sacrificed animals, called aá¸á¸¥iya (Arabic: أضحية‎), known also by the particular Perso-Arabic term qurbÄni, have to meet certain age and quality standards if not the animal is considered an unacceptable sacrifice. [31] In Pakistan on your own nearly ten million animals are slaughtered on Eid days charging over US$2. 0 billion. [32]

The meat from the sacrificed animal is preferred being divided into three parts. The family retains one-third of the particular share; another third is given to relatives, friends, and neighborhood friends; and the remaining third is given to the poor and also needy. [31] Though the division is purely optional wherein either every one of the meat may be kept with oneself or may be given away to poor or needy, the preferred method as per sunnah regarding Muhammad is dividing it into three parts. [30]

Muslims use their new or best clothes. Women cook special sweets. They gather with relatives and buddies. [23]

Eid al-Adha in the Gregorian calendar

See also: Islamic work schedule

While Eid al-Adha is always on the same day with the Islamic calendar, the date on the Gregorian calendar varies from year to year considering that the Islamic calendar is a lunar calendar and the Gregorian calendar can be a solar calendar. The lunar calendar is approximately eleven days shorter compared to the solar calendar. [33] Each year, Eid al-Adha (like other Islamic holidays) falls on one of about two to four different Gregorian dates in various areas of the world, because the boundary of crescent visibility is distinctive from the International Date Line.

The following list shows the official dates of Eid al-Adha for Saudi Arabia as announced from the Supreme Judicial Council. Future dates are estimated according to the particular Umm al-Qura calendar of Saudi Arabia. [2] The Umm al-Qura is merely a guide for planning purposes and not the absolute determinant or perhaps fixer of dates. Confirmations of actual dates by moon sighting are applied around the 29th day of the lunar month prior to Dhu al-Hijjah[34] to announce the precise dates for both Hajj rituals and the subsequent Eid celebration. The three days after the listed date are also area of the festival. The time before the listed date the pilgrims look at the Mount Arafat and descend from it after sunrise of the particular listed day.

In many countries, the start of any lunar Hijri month varies good observation of new moon by local religious authorities, so the actual day of celebration varies by locality.

To know more click this link. Eid Ul Adha

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