20 Animals That Live In The Great Barrier Reef Port Douglas Summer in the Tropical Far North of Queensland, Australia

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Port Douglas Summer in the Tropical Far North of Queensland, Australia

Some call it cold, others call it green, some call it what it really is, summer. Whatever we call it though summer in the tropical far north of Queensland, Australia is what defines a tropical climate and without a doubt is a most beautiful time of the year.

The days are long and warm with hot periods of bright sunshine interspersed with passing storm clouds that bathe the land in pure hot water drawn from the Coral Sea, and with each cloud bursting into the side of the brain singing their praises.

Whatever we choose to call summer in the tropics it is true to that name providing lush growth and an abundance of life giving rain.

The first sign of the season is the changing winds as the usual southern Easterlies give way to the colder Northerlies. This pattern may change back and forth as the rain continues to advance southward. As the weeks of summer go by and the preparation increases, the rain gets heavier and heavier.

You may be lucky and witness some of the heaviest rainfall, turning roads briefly into rivers and then you know why the streams and rivers are so big!

Summer is a time of renewal as life under the sun responds to the cool warm air that promotes growth and renewal. People are not immune to this either. Fill your lungs with fresh ocean air and marvel at the wonder of hot, cool, green and summer season. There is enough support here for all of us and everyone should experience summer in the tropics at least once in their life.

Port Douglas is in the heart of the north east coast and is the perfect place to spend an Australian summer holiday. Witness the awesome power of Mother Nature from the daily growth on the smallest of newly born plants to the great movements in the wind of the famous water slides. The cycles of life unfold before your very eyes.

For those of us lucky enough to live here it’s time to enjoy everything we love about the tropics, from the familiar sounds of our unique animals to the knowledge of warm rains that bring endless growth. stand. Share this experience and visit Queensland’s tropical far north.

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2 Ways Water Can Be Released From Animal Bodies Polynesian Weight Loss – 12 Diet Secrets to Accelerate Your Weight Loss

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Polynesian Weight Loss – 12 Diet Secrets to Accelerate Your Weight Loss

1. Speed ​​up your weight loss by starting with a 24 hour water fast. Drink lots of water.

2. Spark your metabolism by eating small meals organized around lean proteins every 3 hours.

3. Drink plain water with every meal, up to one liter. This alone will boost your weight loss.

4. Increase your fiber by eating lots of vegetables, or take a daily fiber supplement.

5. Elimination of all junk food, and small dense food such as bread, ketchup, food.

6. Taper your calories making the first meals bigger, and the last meal smaller.

7. Taper your carbs. This is a basic weight loss and one of the most powerful tips.

8. Eat your last meal at least 2 hours before bedtime. Four hours is even better, but tough.

9. Do 30 – 60 minutes of moderate cardio first thing in the morning on an empty stomach.

10. Drink green tea and take a multivitamin every day.

11. Do not eat soy, or soy products.

12. Do not eat dairy products or drink milk.

Polynesians are very sensitive to carbohydrates, and of all the diet and weight loss strategies used, this is the most important. You must manage your carbohydrates carefully if you ever hope to achieve weight loss. This means eliminating refined sugars, junk foods, fried foods, processed foods, and even so-called junk foods. They are nothing more than cleverly disguised junk foods that will surreptitiously sabotage your recent weight loss efforts. Also, of the healthy carbohydrates you eat, you must taper them throughout the day, eating most of your starchy carbohydrates early in the day when your body can burn them as energy. At the end of the day change your carbs in your diet to slow down the burning of fibrous vegetables, and eliminate carbs completely from your last meal.

Most Polynesians fall into the endomorph category, with elements of the other two body types, but primarily endomorphic. As such our bodies often require more cardiovascular training in order to achieve weight loss. This is not necessarily a good thing, just a fact. Everyone is different, but if you are prepared to do whatever it takes, then you will succeed. Eat your last meal at least 2 hours before bed. On waking drink a cup of green tea, and at least two glasses of plain water. Then do 30-60 minutes of steady moderate cardio depending on the time you have. In this fasting state your body has the correct hormonal environment to mobilize fat and increase weight gain by 300% more, than at any other time of the day. This is the best time to burn that body fat, and the effects of this cardio session will boost your weight loss for hours afterward.

Taper your calories to achieve greater weight loss. Polynesian people cannot follow a typical American diet and expect to lose weight. The average working American typically skips breakfast; The cardinal sin of weight loss is working out all day without eating a good meal, only to come home and eat like there’s no tomorrow. Then go to bed to prepare to repeat this cruelty the next day. If you want to turn this idea on its head, then you will have a better eating schedule regardless of the quality of that food. It would be better to eat a big breakfast, go snacking all day at work, and then skip dinner. This will be an amazing plan for weight loss.

Finally, don’t be fooled by the hype surrounding milk, soy, and soy derivatives. Soy has estrogenic properties that interfere with the body’s release of testosterone. It is found in 95% of all processed foods in some form or another; check the labels. Who wants more estrogen in the body which promotes fat storage as well as female characteristics. Not only are our children fatter than ever, but young men are developing female-shaped bodies with breast milk. Girls develop mature characteristics at various ages. Much of this is due to the increased estrogen built into their bodies from processed foods and dairy. Yes, dairy cows have two staples in their diet, corn and soy. The slogan ‘Got Milk’ is a million dollar a year advertising campaign. Don’t buy into it. If it is inappropriate for us to drink our own mother’s milk after the first years of our life, how much better to drink milk from animals. It will derail your weight loss efforts.

Follow these 12 diet secrets for weight loss and you will see success.

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2 Types Of Learned Behavior That Concern Animal Trainers Value of Competition

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Value of Competition

Many worthwhile values have been perceived to be inherent in sports participation, yet they are not accessible automatically to everyone who participates. There are values that are not only worthwhile to pursue but need to be made available and accessible to more youth. It’s not a matter of saturating a community with organized sports leagues or merely upgrading physical education programs in the schools. Many youngsters, including many who participate do not really benefit from sports for a variety of reasons but at least in part because of the “win-at-all costs” concepts prevalent today. Participation in sports should be a vehicle for all-around personal growth and the development of a positive self-image. For participation in sports to be a growth experience the concept of “winning must be put into its proper perspective. There are winners and there are “winners”. Everyone needs to “win” sometimes if he or she is to gain satisfaction from any sport. Winning can however, be broadened to include progress on many levels. Each individual can learn to set their own personal goals and define “winning” in their own personal way.

Coaching styles should be directed in such a way as to develop the skills and attitudes that help an individual to feel in charge of their own life and to feel like a winner. An approach is needed which provides the essential experiences which not only make sports values more accessible, but provides the motivation to participate in the sport, learn the necessary skills, and develop the self-esteem necessary to approach life with confidence — and that’s what it’s all about. An important issue has to do with how children perceive themselves. If they have a very weak perception of the power they have over their life, or believe that they are dependent people, at the whims of their environment, then we need to strengthen and encourage the perception that they can affect many things in their life through the efforts which they put forth. By trying, by thinking, by extending their best effort, they can affect what happens to them in their life. If my perception is, “I can’t do anything,”: then my attitude is “why try?” and my motivation is zero and all the capabilities in the world, all the skills in the world, will be useless.

On the other hand, if my perception is “I can do something,” then my attitude is to try and my motivation is high and even if I don’t have the skills or capabilities, as long as the perception stays alive I will innovate, try, work and ultimately develop the capabilities I need to achieve.

Sports programs can provide an important ingredient in developing an environment that cultivates three basic perceptions:

1. I am a capable person who can do things for myself.

2. I am an important, contributing part of things greater than myself.

3. I have the power to influence what happens to me in my life.

Of course this means that the adults who work in this environment must understand these perceptions and how they are developed. In creating this environment you must make sure that youth are involved because they want to be. They need to be appreciated for themselves and taken seriously as a person. They need to be listened to. There has to be an effort made to make sure youth are not asked for more than they have been prepared to deliver. Youth need to be perceived as having a significant role to play in life and a major purpose of the program is that they will achieve a realization of that purpose if they stay with the program. Everyone (youth, leaders, and parents) needs to support one another. Unfortunately, there are many who work with competitive sports programs who are not trained or who do not believe in the principles that will help youth to grow and develop. Coaches need to have technical expertise in the sport and work at the application of their expertise according to effective principles of teaching sports skills, teamwork and individual growth and development. Coaches need to be effective counselors.

They need to be dedicated to the idea of helping each individual to achieve on what ever level each is capable of through the utilization of physical skill instruction and the application of principles pertaining to the development of positive perceptions and positive self-image. Children who have the greatest possibilities for top athletic performance and in life itself are those whose parents pay particular attention to the child’s upbringing (in all aspects) during the first seven years. Athletic performance, as well as success in life therefore, begins the day the child is born. As early as six months to two years children can be provided with activity and recreation experiences such as a beginning water adjustment and learning to swim. Not with the purpose in mind of aiming at future Olympic competition but as an ideal form of fun, relaxation and physical conditioning throughout life. If a youth is interested, he or she may be encouraged to get involved in a competitive experience. Sports programs should take into consideration all those who desire or might desire to begin preparation for “making the team” by fostering and working with community programs which teach basic athletic skills at all levels. Ideally, a child develops his or her athletic ability while progressing up through various levels of advancement. Adequately skilled staff at all levels give students every opportunity for making the team. We want to encourage the type of continuity necessary to develop excellence through a comprehensive and progressive program. A child’s aspirations should be directed toward certain goals in life.

Whatever he or she plans to be “when he or she grows up”, experiences along the way should encourage the striving for excellence (not necessarily perfection) – never mediocrity. Setting the goal for participation on a competitive team may open up the way for a valuable learning experience, developing desirable attitudes; learning new skills; developing dedication, self-discipline, self-denial, and physical fitness, attributes lacking in many of this nation’s youth and adults alike. Over the long haul, it’s striving for excellence that counts. Teachers and coaches who are most concerned about personal development – the development of desirable attitudes, and winning as a by-product (in that order) – teach, develop and enrich the youngster. He learns the price he must pay in hard work, determination, and frustration, whether he or she becomes a champion or competes for personal pleasure. The experience youngsters have will condition their mind, as well as their body for a more positive existence. Teachers and coaches who are sensitive to this overall philosophy and who can relate to youngsters, especially ages twelve and under where guidance, empathy and genuine love are of primary importance, are worth their weight in gold (and most assuredly would not be paid what they are worth).

An athlete conditions his or her body physiologically for greater physical efforts by progressively increasing the physical stress, combined with proper habits of nutrition, sleep, etc.. As the body adapts to the stress of short, easy workouts, the athlete increases the amount of stress by doing longer, harder workouts. He must also condition himself psychologically in a similar manner. In the crucial transition period of increasing competitive drive, the child needs a compassionate coach who displays more than the ability to be well organized and a thorough knowledge of the sport, important as these factors are in the effective coach. A coach should not be merely be ambitious and able to get good results but also know how to handle and understand children. A coach working with children during their formative years can do a great deal to develop desirable or undesirable attitudes. The children under such guidance unconsciously adopt the attitudes the coach displays. This applies not only during workout sessions and other team functions, but also in the type of personal relationship the coach develops with each individual youth.

Most athletes develop a strong loyalty to their coach and have confidence in his or her ability. It is important, therefore, that a coach this ability, but also that they have a conviction of the value and dignity of the individual. Justified confidence is the cornerstone of any program. An over-critical parent who questions the coach’s ability and methods can undermine this confidence. Coaches who must constantly protect themselves from the criticism the team’s parents are in danger of losing much of their capacity to coach effectively. Coaches make errors in judgement just as we all do; compassion and understanding on the part of the parents is a necessary prerequisite for a successful program. Parents must clearly understand that the pressure on coaches to “win-at-all-costs” comes from parents. In working with youth in the community or in organized school athletic programs, the growth and development of each individual child MUST be more important to everyone concerned than the numbers on any scoreboard. The Objectives of Sport

1. To provide opportunities for social and emotional development.

2. To furnish a wholesome and worthwhile physical and recreational outlet.

3. To provide opportunities to learn sportsmanship and develop awareness of team cooperation.

4. To provide an educational environment.

5. To provide opportunities to learn good health habits.

6. To provide training and competition that will aid in the development of worthwhile attitudes.

7. To provide a wide base of experience for all and not just the highly skilled.

8. To provide opportunities for developing good working habits and self-evaluation.

These objectives are met by having properly supervised and organized practices and competitive experiences with opportunity for team functions not limited just to competition. A coach must be able to develop the proper types of practices and competitive experiences that correspond to the level, skill, and scope of achievement of the various ages and abilities on the team or within an individual’s ability. A Coach needs to be willing to teach team members to set goals in other aspects of their life such as school and establishing good health habits. Activities need to be organized in such a way as to maximize participation in competently developed practices and competitive opportunities, with tensions minimized and development within the scope and good sequential development of all team members. Nowhere in the list of objectives, is the development of national champions or a winning team mentioned. Mediocrity should be no one’s goal – everyone should strive for excellence. However, the real winner in sports is often not the winner of the race, for he or she may be achieving that goal at the cost of failure to attain some of the other goals available in such a program, which may be more important.

It must always be kept in the forefront of one’s mind that the only justification of any sports program is that it exists for the benefit of the child’s long-term development not for the fleeting contents of the scoreboard. The question of children’s readiness for competition has to be answered on an individual basis. Even more, it depends on the wisdom of parents and coaches to make competitive sports ready for children. I cannot think that the agony of one child’s defeat can be the thrill of another’s victory, or that winning is the only reward and losing is punishment. Children and psychologists know this to be untrue. The drive to tackle physical barriers and, later, to compare one’s ability with others is a natural part of a child’s development, vital in forming feelings of competence and a secure self-identity. All are key ingredients for competitiveness and self-motivation in sports–and doesn’t have to come at someone else’s expense. Learning to win and to lose are parts of the same process.

Parents and coaches need to be able to conduct a dialogue helping to develop guidelines to make informed choices — not whether competitive sports are good or bad, but what kinds of sports, under what circumstances, help or hinder what types of personal growth in which specific children. This is why it is so important to take time to know and understand the child and to design an approach to that individual when it comes to teaching and training for a particular sport. It is hard to debate that winning is important, but children are more important. In 1979 two groups, the National Association for Sport and Physical Education and the American Academy of Pediatrics endorsed a Bill of Rights for Young Athletes A BILL OF RIGHTS FOR YOUNG ATHLETES

Each child should have:

1. The right to participate in sports.

2. The right to participate at a level commensurate with their maturity and ability.

3. The right to have qualified adult leadership.

4. The right to play as a child and not as an adult.

5. The right to share in the leadership and decision making of their sports participation.

6. The right to participate in safe and healthy environments.

7. The right to proper preparation for participation in sports.

8. The right to an equal opportunity to strive for success.

9. The right to be treated with dignity.

10. The right to have fun in Sports.

Adults can make it impossible for young people to learn how to cooperate by developing a climate of cooperation within a competitive experience. Young people will face enough competition in their life. In fact, adults should work to control some of the intense competition that young people may face. Children under the age of 12 should not be forced to deal with a “win at all costs” philosophy in any organized competitive team sport. Sports programs for youth need to adhere to the following rules:

1. Anyone who wants to play can play.

2. Each participant plays an equal amount of time.

3. No awards are given for winning a game but for: Participation, Meeting personal or team goals, and Effort.

Young people need good recreation programs. They do not need to deal with the pressures of winning in order to build the ego of the coach, parents, or youth leaders. During middle or late adolescence they are much better able to deal with that type of pressure. But if they are not prepared for it by being allowed to develop free of that intense pressure, severe personality deterioration can occur. This same problem occurs in classrooms where teachers assign grades through the use of a normal curve. There is absolutely no justification for such a practice and parents should see to it that such practices halt. Schools should use a system of criterion referenced grading. Here the criteria for receiving a certain grade are specified at the beginning of the course. They should be challenging, but if every student meets the criteria for an “A” grade then every student in the course should receive an “A” grade. To just say that only 10% may receive an “A” and 10% must fail is the height of educational stupidity. MYTHS ABOUT COMPETITION.

Adults must make sure that they do not use competition as the sole method of motivating young people. Youth should not be measured by or compared to others. Each young person should be taught to measure their own progress based on the goals that they have set for themselves. It is very easy to fall into the trap of using competition to motivate. There are even fairly well developed sets of myths that support this approach. MYTH 1: Our society is highly competitive and children must be taught to succeed in a “survival of the fittest” world. Many advocates of competition insist that schools and homes must emphasize a dog-eat-dog theory of survival in the occupational world. To be better than the Joneses is the deepest desire of such individuals. Yet the truth is that the vast majority of human interaction, in our society as well as in all other societies, is not competitive, but cooperative. We are a social species. Cooperation is a biological necessity for humans. Without cooperation, no group, no family, no organization would be able to exist. Even in fighting wars and conducting competitive activities, there are vast underpinnings of cooperative agreements concerning how the competition or conflict will be conducted and the ways in which antagonists can express their hostility toward each other. There can be no competition without underlying cooperation. A study of social psychology suggests that competition is a very, very small part of interacting with other individuals in our society and probably not a very important type of human interaction. MYTH 2: Achievement, success, outstanding performance, superhuman effort, the rise of the great leader, drive, ambition, and motivation depend upon competing with others. The appeal of this myth to persons who wish to see greatness is overwhelming. Where is the great person who will set the world straight and show us a better way of life?

The truth is, however that higher achievement does not take place within an environment of forced competition. Performance can actually go down under competitive goal structures, and a person who is superior in one situation may be markedly inferior in another. The use of competition will, under most conditions, decrease the quality of a person’s work and will in no way determine who is the best person to achieve under a variety of conditions. Competitive motivation interferes with one’s capacity for the adaptive problem solving necessary in dealing with complex issues with others. The only children who are motivated by competition are those who believe they have a good chance of winning. Persons do not exert effort to achieve the impossible. Competition is threatening and discouraging to those who believe they cannot win, and many children will withdraw psychologically or physically or only half try in competitive situations. Children are motivated when a goal is desirable, possible, challenging, concrete, and requires positive interaction with others. A competitive goal structure does not affect any of those variables in a positive way unless the child believes he has an equal chance of winning. The whole area of intrinsic motivation shows that motivation does not depend upon competition. Even in extrinsic motivation situations, competition will exist only when there is a limited amount of the reinforcer (it cannot be shared with everyone), and when every child believes he has a chance to win. As children grow, parents need to foster and encourage the child’s ability to deal with others in a cooperative way. Having an appropriate set of rules to follow and being helped to gain effective communication skills are two very important component parts of this process. An additional element has to do with the feelings of acceptance and the closeness as well as the emotional relationship that exists between parents and children. Children must be helped to feel accepted without conditions by both parents. There is probably no set of skills more important to a human being than the skills of cooperative interaction. The vast majority of human interaction is cooperative in nature. Without cooperation among individuals, no group, family, organization, or school would be able to exist. Without high levels of cooperation there would be no coordination of behavior. No two individuals could communicate with each other or interact without cooperating to form a common language and agreed upon forms for behavior. Occupations, education, exchange of goods and services, or any other type of coordinated human action would not exist without cooperation. Cooperation is the most important and most basic form of human interaction and the skills of cooperating successfully are some of the most important skills a person needs to master. Competition in various forms is also an integral part of our lives, and yet most do not fully understand the positive and negative consequences of it. We have for too long ignored some of the destructive elements of competition and have also failed to teach the necessary skills for effective cooperation. Much current research seems to indicate that certain forms of competition in current vogue in sports, classrooms and in the family have a tendency to create environments which are destructive. Perhaps one of the reasons why competition is overused and even has destructive results when used appropriately is because children are not taught effective cooperation skills first. Children must feel good enough about themselves to be able to decide whether or not they want to compete in a given situation. Many feel that they have no choice and that in order to be accepted, or to be a “winner” they must compete. They need to be able to see participation as a value in itself and have the communication skills necessary to be able to participate in an effective way. To compete or not to compete should be a clear personal choice.

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2 Species Of Animals That Live In Family Groups Rainforest Birds – Madagascar Fody

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Rainforest Birds – Madagascar Fody

Bird Name:

Madagascar Food

Latin name:

Foudia madagascariensis

Condition:

The least of your worries

Scientific multiplication:

Kingdom: Animalia

Phylum: Chordata

Class: Aves

Order: Passeriformes

Family: Ploceidae

Form: Foudia

Species: F. madagascariensis

General information:

Other common names of Madagascar Fody are Red Cardinal Fody and Common Fody. This is a small bird that occurs on Madagascar and other Indian Ocean islands. It has been observed in large groups, and is often associated with mixed herds in the forest.

Physical description:

Fody Madagascar is approximately 5 inches in length and weighs about 12 to 19 g. Breeding males are mostly red with olive-brown wings and tail. There are also dark marks around his eyes. Non-breeding females and males have olive-brown upperparts and grayish-brown underparts. Juveniles are similar to females but are buffier in appearance.

Food:

This fodder feeds primarily on plants, but will also forage for insects and drink nectar.

Accommodation:

This fody was originally endemic to Madagascar. Since we have been introduced to several islands including Amirantes, Comoros, Réunion, Seychelles, Mauritius, St. Helena. It occurs on open savanna, grasslands, forest clearings, and cultivated areas. Madagascar Fody nests are oval and straight, built by the male with the help of the female in the early stages.

Amendment:

Madagascar food is unique. The breeding season is from spring through summer and into autumn. The female usually lays 2-4 eggs per clutch, and lays them alone for about 11-14 days. And male and female for the youth. Fleging usually occurs some 15-16 days later.

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2 Questions A Store Can Ask About Service Animals How to Breed Mealworms, The Easy Way

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How to Breed Mealworms, The Easy Way

You may ask why people would want to breed food bugs. There are many reasons I can think of why some might WRITE is interested in breeding mealworms: They are insects! They are smelly, slimy, icky, squirmy, insects! They can come out and raid my house! Or those who have some experience with these insects may suggest that they can easily be purchased from a local pet store or even cheaper in bulk off the internet.

First, let me get the thoughts out of the way—they’re not smelly, thin, squirmy, and I don’t think they’re icky. Their climbing skills are limited to rigid objects. They are slow moving so if you drop one, you can easily catch it.

Yes, you can order mealworms from a pet store. The Internet is still selling worms for as little as $12 thousand! So why would I want to go through the trouble of breeding them if I can buy them easily and inexpensively? Great question.

If you raise small reptiles like me, or have very small babies such as viper geckos, pictus geckos, or even chameleons, you need to raise your own food worms! You will find that breeding mealworms provide a large variety of the perfect sizes for these small reptiles. Child predators always eat! You need to have a reliable food supply in the right amount for these young animals to allow them to grow at a healthy rate. By raising your own, you will have many sizes available for your animals.

To start raising your own food worms start with about 100 – 200 adult worms. Again, these can be purchased at a local pet store or even from an Internet company. We note that normally mealworms will metamorphoses to a red and then into a Darkling Beetle.

Prepare the bed used to keep the insects healthy by using a brand of oats and dry baby cereal. The cheaper the better. I use oats as a base for medium. I like to add cereal as an additional food source for young mealworms.

Mix the two together – 2/3 oats to about 1/3 cereal. You will want to mix enough to have about an inch or two in the bottom of your container. This will become the basic food of insects. Additional foods such as potatoes, carrots, apples, kale, and other greens can be offered to provide moisture to the insects. The container can be a plastic shoe box, a sweater box, or another arrangement that I will discuss later.

Once the oats and cereal are mixed, add the mealworms. Add an egg top and bottom and you are good to go. Insects use this egg carton to crawl around on and under. Although mealworms will not climb the plastic walls, I place the cardboard away from the edges of the boxes.

Keeping mealworms in the high 70’s low 80’s and you will start to see red growth soon. I have found with the medium mixture described above and other foods offered that the insects will not bother the red. Some beetles may turn and die but most should turn into beetles. If you want to increase the production rate, you can definitely separate the red from the insects.

After two weeks of being red, you will start to see some black beetles appear under the egg cartons. Again, I didn’t notice any predation in my groups, even if the red ones were eaten by beetles if they were well fed. The beetles ultimately what you strive for is a healthy food colony. They lay eggs to create new mealworms. The eggs are very small and you will probably never see them as they are laid and will stick to the bed.

Finally, the container will be a mixture of substrate, egg cartons, mealworms of various sizes, maybe some reds, and of course beetles. From this slurry operation you can choose the size of the food you want.

The above method works well if you need to feed a few animals. If you have more than a handful of animals, the best way to go about organizing a non-stick food pantry is to use one of those plastic filing systems found at the department store. your area. Set each bowl with a pattern and you’ll attract all sizes of mealworms—more than you could ever use.

In this setup, I have 6 bins of mealworms going (the middle of the bin used for vermiculite). I don’t use all the bugs that this unit produces. I grow many bins to house caterpillars, beetles, and eventually more small insects—mealworms.

I hope you try this neat way to provide your animals with extra nutrients. Be patient as it takes some time to see those first micro mealworms.

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2 Pictures Of Animals Found In The Transfrontier Park Zambia – A Place For a Beautiful and Wild Honeymoon

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Zambia – A Place For a Beautiful and Wild Honeymoon

Zambia, a landlocked country is famous for experiencing sports coming from animal activities and striking beaches that add a flavor of love in the lives of people visiting the place. This wonderful country shares borders with the Democratic Republic of Congo, Tanzania, Malawi, Mozambique, Botswana, Zimbabwe, Namibia and Angola.. The fascinating capital Lusaka is located in the south-central part of Zambia.

Best Time To Visit

Mostly in the dry season or warm weather when the animals are more concentrated around the rivers, is the best time to visit the site. So June to November is the perfect time.

Places To Visit

This beautiful country is home to many great waterfalls, amazing wildlife, great safaris, great adventures, rich culture with welcoming people. But few points of view are worth registering as under:

1. Victoria Falls

The country is said to be the home of Victoria Falls and is a very popular tourist destination which is listed in the UNESCO World Heritage Site. Visitors can witness a waterfall twice as tall as Niagara Falls and very long, large and wide.

2. The Anglican Cathedral

This is in the capital Lusaka. You will easily fall in love with the amazing space of this place which can be witnessed from the stained glass windows and marvel at the understanding of the building. This is also known as the Cathedral of the Holy Cross.

3. Cafe National Park

It is one of the largest parks in Zambia and a hot spot for honeymooners. This national park allows you to have a boat trip in the Kafue River with many wildlife here.

4. Livingstone Island

This island is a place you should not miss in any case as you can feel comfortable with a dip in Devil’s Lake and you can take a picture with a permanent rainbow in the background.

Best Hotels To Stay

1. Chrismar Hotel

It is one of the new Livingstone hotels rendering the best quality customer services with an affordable luxury.

2. Intercontinental Lusaka

It is a luxurious hotel located in a government and government area that provides you with all the advanced facilities.

3. Bush Front Lodge

This is one of the most affordable accommodations in Livingstone.

It is undoubtedly a wonderful place where beauty mixes with wildness. These great features make it a wonderful destination for your dream honeymoon. The country of Zambia has many hidden secrets to spell you with the rich wildlife of southern Africa. From the past number of years it has been occupied by tribal migration and hunting.

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2 Photos Of Animals Found In The Transfrontier Park Botswana Safaries

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Botswana Safaries

From the vast, dry Kalahari desert to the beautiful Okavango delta, a maze of waterways running through the desert sands – Botswana safaris offer you an amazing variety that will be a feast for your senses, tired and exhausted. same and unity around. they.

Here is a brief outline of some of the top destinations:

The 10,600-acre Rhino Sanctuary was established in 1993 to rescue the endangered white rhino. Starting with just four, the rhino population has increased to nearly 20. Plans are underway to introduce the endangered black rhino to the sanctuary as well. It is run by a local trust that involves communities from the region. Admission with a vehicle is only $5, and donations from guests keep you going. For accommodation, our Mokongwa Camp or Boma camp offers many facilities at good prices.

Chobe National Park covers an area of ​​4,079 square miles on the borders with Zambia and Zimbabwe. It is also a picture of contrasts – from a lush river area in the north to dry forest land in the south. About 45,000 elephants have made it their home. If you can make sure you won’t get hit by any of them, then try fishing too. You will find more than 90 species, including the mighty tiger fish. And remember, the big cats rule here as well. Accommodation is not a problem: Chobe Safari Lodge is moderately priced and comfortable.

What was a lake millions of years ago is now Nxai National Park, covering 2,787 square miles of arid dry basin that goes from a desolate yet strangely inviting dust bowl in winter to shallow , the land is surprisingly cool when it rains in summer. When the weather is cool, flamingos, wildebeests, and zebras (and their unlikely predators) can be seen migrating here in their thousands. For accommodation, Planet Baobab is there for your comfort.

Mashatu Game Reserve, covering over 100,000 hectares, is the largest privately owned area in Botswana, and part of the Northern Tuli Game Reserve. Apart from lions, leopards, donkeys, Kudu, elephants, giraffes, cheetahs, hyenas, it also offers you river camps full of monkeys, ancient monuments and beautiful sandstones!

For accommodation, although known as an expensive place, Mashatu Main Camp is very reasonable compared to many Botswana lodges.

The 1,881-square-mile Moremi Game Reserve is located on the great Okavango delta. There are more than 300 bird species in the delta’s vast maze of inlets and islands, in addition to hippos, crocodiles, elephants passing by, and lily pads that seem to stretch on forever. Avoid the cool-summer season if you can, because the water will be too much for a traditional “mokoro” (a type of boat) ride at that time of the year. Make yourself comfortable in the Audi camp, which offers very moderate rates and many attractions.

Botswana safaris come in different types. The main three are mobile safaris, luxury honeymoon safaris and fly-in safaris. In mobile safaris 4×4 vehicles are often pressed into service to cover large areas or different habitats in one trip. Luxury honeymoon safaris are for romantic couples who want to spend time sipping champagne on a private terrace while overlooking the vast plains of Botswana. Fly-in safaris use top luxury safari camps in high density game areas like the Okavango delta.

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A Picture Of A White Animated Man In Bars The Changing Face of Women In Indian Cinema

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The Changing Face of Women In Indian Cinema

In its remarkable journey of nearly a century, the Indian film industry, which includes the first ‘star-hit’ “Bollywood”, and countless regional films, has witnessed a sea change in the production of the woman. protagonist. Yes, hardly anyone would deny that Bollywood cinema has been largely male-centric, leaving little room for female counterparts to develop and grow as versatile actors. The roles they play are mostly of the “sati savitri” pattern, lacking the diversity and depth of the ‘female psyche’. However, filmmakers like Bimal Roy, Guru Dutt, Mehboob Khan and Raj Kapoor in the 50’s and 60’s, showed distinction with the attractive presentation of outstanding women as wife, mother and lover. Some of their films show the brilliant art of ‘bloody’ women, with all their inner depth and charming individuality. Take for example, “Mother India”, “Pyaasa”, “Kaagaz ka phool” and “Madhumati”. A close look at all four of these films will show you how they celebrate the sheer grace and strength of women in the face of personal adversity. These filmmakers give a constant effort to show the dynamic world of the emotions of women professionals with their high artistry and depth of human understanding.

Again, the 70’s, 80’s and 90’s witnessed a severe deterioration in the image of the ‘heroine’ in mainstream Indian cinema. It was then that the ‘female’ performer was reduced to ‘heroine’, referring to the image of ordinary glamor dolls, dancing around trees with heroes and doing cabaret numbers. In this way, it is projected as a show-piece or in other words, as a “nice touch” to the film, rather than being flesh-and-blood in its own right. However, even amidst such general corruption, a few films of Hrishikesh Mukherjee and Basu Chatterjee stand out as notable exceptions with their presentation of the importance of the female spirit. However, these films have a common success rate of melodies, melodies and other “feel good” factors for which Hindi films are known today. However, the handling of the female protagonist is quite sensitive, compared to many other formulaic films released at the same time. Take for example, “Abhimaan”, where we see the very soulful Jaya Bhaduri giving up her music career for the wishes of her jealous husband and later coming to terms with her personal pain through the magic device of music. Again, in “Mili”, we see another bubbly, the soul of Jaya, suddenly hit with leukemia and trying to live life with the same sports enthusiasm with her lover. “Chhoti si baat” and “Rajnigandha”, on the other hand, show the lives of working women of the 70s and the problems they experience with the men in their lives, although in different situations.

Leaving the first films of Bollywood, the films of Satyajit Ray, Mrinal Sen and Hritwik Ghatak in Bengal should be specially mentioned in regard to the psychological exploration of the female protagonist. Ray, in “Charulata” in the 60s, introduced us to the great “Charu” with all his cunning and quest for creative life. In her relationship with “Amal”, which begins with Charu exploring her literary and creative pursuits, the much-needed intellectual companionship and attention forms the basis of an “extra-ordinary” relationship that transforms her. forever. Again, Ray in “Ghare Bairey” and “Mahanagar”, describes a woman who always fights with uncertainty and real-life, and explores the appearance of modern women in the upper class of colonial India. One cannot help drawing parallels with Ibsen’s “A Doll’s House”, because these two films, like this play, mark a woman’s search for her identity, her spiritual awakening, and her gradual self-awareness, in against all established regulations. male-dominated society. On the other hand, Mrinal Sen, in “Ekdin Pratidin”, explores the chaotic life of a working woman and focuses on her inner turmoil that questions the so-called “truth” of the outside world. The film depicts the trauma caused in a middle-class Bengali home when a little girl fails to return home on time. As the family is engulfed in anxiety, many facades crack and unresolved tensions surface, repeating the hypocrisy and pretensions of so-called “respect”. Again, in “Durotto”, Sen speaks of the ‘distance’ between a couple and the pain of their separation. Mamata Shankar here plays a wife devastated by the bitterness of divorce and then glowing with the hope of reconciliation.

Hrithwik Ghatak’s “Meghe Dhaka Tara”, “Komolgandhar” and “Subarnarekha” on the other hand, show the conflicting lives of women struggling for life in post-partition Bengal. The partition, with its devastating consequences, forced the women of middle and low families to turn as the bread winners of the house. Ghatak’s films, based on real fragments of reality, explore the subtle pains of women under such harsh conditions.

Today, the definition of a female musician is more challenging in terms of her gender identity. The seed of this question was first sown by the powerful Aparna Sen in the 80s with “Paroma”, where the woman entered the so-called “prostitution” only to develop a long-term psychological development. Today, directors like Deepa Mehta, Mira Nair and Meghna Gulzar are perfect enough to portray ‘taboo topics’ such as female sexuality, polygamy and even motherhood, where its a woman who takes the lead role in plotting, making love and even has the intention to “rent” her womb without the permission of her future husband! While in “Fire” and “Kamasutra”, women have the courage to explore their sexual desires, in Mahesh Manjrekar’s “Astitva “, the spirited deaf woman gives birth to a child out of wedlock and shatters the world of male vanity when the truth is finally revealed. The film questions the concerns of female behavior through a detailed examination of sexual and family relationships. Again, very recently, in “Shunyo-e-buke”, a Bengali film by Koushik Ganguly, the protagonist is a flat-chested woman of the 21st century who questions the very basis of judging a woman’s worth “through her cleavage”. In a vain society where has a well-rounded, curvaceous figure as the highest form of female beauty, where your bust line n i value more than your brain and your emotions, this hard-hitting film questions the stereotype of women as sexual objects in Indian society.

So, from Hritwik Ghatak’s “Subarnarekha” to Rituparno Ghosh’s “Bariwali”, from Raj Kapoor’s “Ram Teri Ganga Maili” to Madhur Bhandarkar’s “Chandni Bar”, we see the changing face of Indian women who remain hidden in their private world of Internal chaos and external world of multiple challenges. Women in India, defined by the system of relationships and models of behavior within the structure of the society created, over the years, learned to live under the twin threads of heritage and modernity; and it is welcome that more and more leaders in the following years project the consciousness of the awakened woman, breaking the archetypal patterns with the consciousness of their intelligence. On a lighter note, our Elder generation, previously exposed to the “vampire” Helen, is now face-to-face with the more “killer” Urmila Matondkar. Many are saying that the change is a “flavor” for their “movie” palate!

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A Animal That Only Eats Fish Is Called A Why You Should Eat a Plant-Focused Diet

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Why You Should Eat a Plant-Focused Diet

Plant-based diets range from eating only seeds to diets that include some meats and products. Here are some of the many you can follow:

vegetarian… in sizes plants only the end of the spectrum. Vegans eat vegetables, fruits, nuts, seeds, beans and whole grains. But they exclude all foods of animal origin from their diet… these include meat, poultry, seafood, eggs and dairy products such as milk, cheese, butter etc.

Vegans replace animal sources of protein with other sources that provide plenty of this important macronutrient. These include beans, peanuts (as in peanut butter), tofu, fruit, peas and other vegetables, and make sure that vegans, despite rumors to the contrary, do not suffer from a lack of protein.

Lacto-vegetarian…is a diet that excludes foods of animal origin except for dairy products, such as milk, butter, cheese, and other foods derived from animal milk.

Ovo-vegetarian…is another diet that excludes foods of animal origin (meat, fish and dairy) unless it includes eggs.

Lacto-ovo-vegetarian…is a vegetarian diet that includes dairy products and eggs but excludes meat and fish.

Pescatarian… is a lacto-ovo-vegetarian diet that also includes fish.

Flexitarian or semi-vegetarian… surrounds a variety of foods based on vegetarian food. They are a plant-based diet that may also include small amounts of red meat, poultry, seafood, eggs and dairy products.

As you can see, plant-based diets vary from strictly plants only to diets that include some or all animal-based products but in restricted amounts.

What are the benefits of plant-based foods?

Making plants the mainstay of your diet can:

  • lower your blood glucose levels and prevent or slow the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D)

  • lower your blood pressure

  • reduce the strain on your kidneys (by eliminating or reducing animal protein in your diet)

  • help you lose weight, and

  • prevent heart disease and strokes (by reducing the accumulation of plaque in your blood vessels.

… among a host of other benefits.

This assumption is supported by several recent studies. For example:

A study, conducted by Loma Linda University in California, of nearly 100,000 members of the Seventh-day Adventist church, which encourages a vegetarian diet, found that swimmers had lower rates of T2D. than non-vegetarians. The study also found that swimmers tend to have healthier weights which may explain why some of them develop diabetes.

A 72-week study, published by the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine, examined the differences between type 2 diabetics following a low-fat vegetarian diet and those on a moderate-carbohydrate eating plan. Researchers found that there was a significant reduction in HbA1C and LDL (bad) cholesterol levels in vegans. A low HbA1C level indicates that you are managing your T2D well.

Two ongoing, long-term studies by the Harvard School of Public Health found that, among 150,000 health care providers, those who ate an additional half-serving of red meat daily for four years had a 50% higher risk most of the development of T2D.

Recent research suggests that inflammation plays a role in the development of T2D. T2D manifests itself as insulin resistance. Both of these interaction problems seem to be reduced with a plant-based diet.

But this positive effect may not be due to vegetarian foods alone.

Most vegetarians are very health conscious (which is probably why they became vegetarians in the first place). But they also tend to engage in other types of healthy behaviors, such as exercise, not smoking, not being a couch potato, and getting plenty of sleep.

The kind of lifestyle vegetarians follow will contribute greatly to their overall health and help them manage their diabetes and other health issues.

That said, diets without meat or diets that restrict the amount of animal products (of all kinds) that you eat have oodles of beneficial nutrients. These foods are high in dietary fiber, phytochemicals, vitamins and minerals. In addition, the fats they contain are healthy…plant foods are low in saturated fats and dietary cholesterol.

How to switch to a plant-based diet

Some people need to reduce the amount of animal products in their baulk diet in an effort that they think will be involved in change. This is absurd.

Here are some pointers…

  • Don’t change it all at once. Instead reduce your consumption of animal products gradually.

  • Prepare yourself mentally by thinking of animal products as a side dish or garnish instead of the main ingredient on your plate.

  • Try having one day without meat a week at the beginning of the change.

  • Write a list of recipes that restrict meat.

  • Get to know the beans. Many varieties provide as much protein as meat and fish. Check out all the different ways you can prepare foods based on beans, prepare them in batches to build a storage and freeze them.

  • Get to know whole grains such as barley, quinoa, brown rice and couscous. Cook them in batches and refrigerate or freeze them.

  • Limit your carb intake by using peanut butter, egg whites (which are at least 90% protein), low-fat or full-fat cheese or other ingredients.

  • Keep it simple. Go for things like veggie burritos filled with beans and green peppers.

Protein…some people fear that if they switch to a plant-based diet they will end up deficient in protein. But this fear is completely unfounded.

Many plant foods contain a lot of protein…beans (the best source), fruits, grains and vegetables. Get to know the macronutrients (protein, fats and carbohydrates) in the plants you want to eat. You will find tons of verified facts on http://nutritiondata.self.com/.

NoticeThe idea that you must mix multiple plant foods in each meal to get a complete protein (ie, a protein that contains all the essential amino acids) is considered old hat and is no longer valid.

Ummami… is one of the five basic tastes (alongside sweetness, sourness, bitterness and saltiness). The name is a Japanese word for ‘savory taste’ and has been described as a juicy-sweet-like or meaty taste.

Umami is one of the reasons why people enjoy meat so much, or why we eat meat according to some people.

However, meat is not the only source of umami… this taste is also found in roasted vegetables, mushrooms, avocados, soy sauce and cheese. It is also found in breast milk, which explains its attractiveness.

Including non-animal foods in your umami-rich diet will make the transition to a plant-based diet easier.

AdditionsWhen you switch to a plant-based diet you need to be aware that your diet may be deficient in micro-nutrients, such as vitamins B12 and D, omega-3 fatty acids, iron and zinc.

Your body can produce small amounts of vitamin B12 but not nearly enough for your needs, and the only external source of this vitamin is meat. All omega-3 fats have to be found outside the body and the main source is fish (although some plants contain small amounts).

So taking supplements on a daily basis is highly recommended. Here’s what I took:

(1) Multivitamins

(2) B12 (4mcg) in a separate tablet

(3) Calcium (400mg) with Vitamin D (2.5mcg) together in a separate tablet

(4) High-potency cod-liver oil capsule with vitamins D and E, in separate capsule.

I think you have to do the same.

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A Animal At A Bees Nest On My House The Rare Earth Hypothesis

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The Rare Earth Hypothesis

It’s been pointed out by others, and based on my readings I tend to have to agree, that astronomers (physical scientists) tend to be much more optimistic and supportive of the notion that advanced life forms in the Universe (extraterrestrial intelligence) are a dime-a-dozen relative to biologists (life scientists), who hedge their bets and who it must be said are presumably better qualified to pass judgments. So, taking things from a more biological perspective, what’s what?

For starters, our Universe is a Goldilocks Universe in that the fundamental laws, relations and principles of physics unite in such a way as to be ultimately bio-friendly. If the Universe wasn’t bio-friendly, we wouldn’t be here to comment on that. That’s not to say however, in relative contrast, that many (most) parts of the Universe aren’t overly bio-friendly. You’d be hard-pressed to survive and thrive in the depths of a stellar core, heading down a Black Hole, vacationing on the surface of a White Dwarf or in the hard vacuum of space itself. So, overall the physics of the Universe displays the physics of a Goldilocks Universe, but actually very few addresses within an overall Goldilocks Universe are really, by our definition, Goldilocks. However, starting with bio-friendly physics, where do we go from that point? Well, physics begat inorganic chemistry. That’s step number one, and clearly that’s easy because there’s an awful lot of inorganic chemistry in our Universe.

Going from inorganic chemistry to organic chemistry isn’t difficult either. Interstellar space is full of dust and gases made up of organic chemicals; ditto many of the planets and moons within our solar system (i.e. – Titan, a moon of Saturn) have organics being part and parcel of their composition, and comets, asteroids and meteors too can contain organic compounds.

Judging by how quickly organic chemistry turned into biochemistry (the origin of life) on the early Planet Earth, it’s not difficult to generate simple proto-cellular to unicellular life forms if the conditions (adequate energy, temperatures, environments) are Goldilocks conditions.

Yet life, even microbial life, is still very, very complex (try making a microbe from scratch if you doubt it). The fact that life arose from scratch on Earth within a very, very short span of geological time after the planet formed is a bit suspect IMHO. But what if Earth were seeded by microbial life forms already in existence from space (or deliberately seeded by extraterrestrials as the Nobel Prize winner Francis Crick has proposed)? Now I realize that just puts off the origin of life question to another time(s) and place(s). However, given the vastness of the cosmos is far greater than that of our finite globe, and given that the cosmos existed for vastly longer periods of time before our sun, solar system and home planet came into existence, such additional time and space easily turns the improbable into a near certainty. And once established somewhere, then life could spread throughout that time and space, until it reached our young planet.

Earth arose billions of years after the universe and our galaxy had evolved, ample time for life to have arisen elsewhere, and seed the early Earth. This is the concept of panspermia. We know that comets, meteors, and the cosmic dust of outer space are chock-o-block full of complex organic molecules. We know that simple terrestrial life can survive the outer space environment if suitably shielded – and it doesn’t take much to do the shielding. We know that surface bits from planets/moons can be ejected into space, carry a cargo of microbes, and land on another planet, even eons later with the microbes still viable. Of course 99.999% of all such microbial life will be doomed to forever wander in space or crash onto a cold, surface of a planet with no atmosphere or water, or plunge into a star, etc. But, sheer numbers will insure that now and again some microbes will land on a hospitable abode and be fruitful and multiple and evolve. The interesting bit is that if then, then now. And thus panspermia will be happening today. Certainly some meteorites which have impacted Earth have inside them ‘organized elements’ suggestive of microbial structures – the Murchison Meteorite from Australia is one such stone. The problem is terrestrial contamination as there are often lengthy time periods between their fall and subsequent discovery. As an aside, if Fred Hoyle & Chandra Wickramasinghe are correct (and I believe they are), microbes (bacteria and viruses) impacting Earth today are largely responsible for some select or various disease epidemics and pandemics, past present, and no doubt future.

On Earth, microbes rule, OK? The biomass of all the bacteria, etc. put together easily equals the biomass of every other multicellular plant and animal added together. And microbes can live in environments where multicellular critters fear to tread and often can’t: from the coldest terrestrial environments, up to the near boiling temperatures, from deep underground to the heights of the atmosphere, from inside water-cooled nuclear reactors and the interior of rocks, to intensely saline, acidic and alkaline environments, to ecosystems where the sun never shines, like the abyssal depths.

They can even survive outer space. Bacteria survived on the surface of the Moon – on Surveyor Three. This was possibly the most significant discovery of the entire Apollo Moon program and it hardly even rated a mention. Astronauts from the Apollo 12 mission brought back to Earth parts of the unmanned Surveyor Three Lunar Lander. Terrestrial bacteria on those parts survived the lunar vacuum, solar radiations (UV, etc.), the massive temperature extremes, and lack of water and nutrients. Experiments since then in low earth orbit have confirmed that given just minimal shielding, bacteria can boldly go!

You’d be aware of how difficult it is to totally sterilize something, be it hospital equipment or a spacecraft bound for a Martian landing. They’re tough – have you ever read about a mass extinction event where a bacterial species, unlike say the multicellular dinosaurs, went poof? Microbes are easy to transport. They can be blasted off the surface of the Earth, shielded from radiation by the debris, and survive to land on another world and be fruitful and multiply. There’s little doubt that somewhere way out there, terrestrial bacteria have hitched a ride to the stars, bolding going where lots of microbes have gone before! Translated, I firmly expect that the universe is teaming with life in all sorts of places. The less than glamorous catch is that LGM is not going to stand for Little Green Men, but Little Green Microbes.

But now we come to our first and major bottleneck.

It took 0.5 billion years for the unicellular origin of life on Earth, or for microbes from space to take root on Earth, but then it then took nearly another 3.5 billion years between the appearance of that ‘simple’ single proto-cell life form and the eventual evolution and the resultant Cambrian explosion of multicellular (complex) life forms. For some reason(s), it appears to be biologically difficult to go from the simple single cell to a complex multicellular organism based on the only example we have to judge such things. Probably the overall obstacle to the early quick-smart establishment of multicellular (complex) life is that heretofore microbes (single cells) were 100% self-sufficient generalists. Complex organisms require the evolution of single cells to give up being generalists, become specialists, and work as part of a team. That degree of organization apparently takes lots of time, especially to the stage of where it can leave a large fossil presence, if it takes place at all.

Once you get to the multicellular stage, and in order to evolve further, well the trick is to survive, for the Universe is a dangerous place.

Planetary environments tend to be dangerous and rarely stable, and thus you need a lot of factors in place to ensure that even simple life even survives the long term and get the chance to evolve into multicellular life. Or, if you have evolved multicellular life, the odds are pretty good it’s going to get the Big “E” – Extinction. I mean complex life is very vulnerable to environmental forces. A tornado probably isn’t going to bother bacteria, but it sure could tear you apart. That’s not to say bacteria can survive everything the cosmos can throw at them, but when nasties come, you stand a better chance of survival if you’re a microbe. So, in order to get to the first proto multicellular critter, and from that to us, you need a lot of Goldilocks factors operating in your favour.

But there are apparently just too many planetary Goldilocks factors at play to grant the probability that complex, multicellular, animal, life is common throughout the cosmos. You need to be in a quiet part of the galaxy – no nearby supernovas, black holes to suck you in, gamma ray bursters, etc. You need a long lived stable single star. You need a gravitationally stable solar system so that planets are not gravitationally disturbed out of their orbit and either plunged into the parent star or cast out of the parent system altogether. You should have a good Jupiter(s) to absorb and/or gravitational deflect comets and asteroids that would otherwise slam into your otherwise environmentally-friendly planet causing havoc to established life forms. You need a planet that’s in a pretty circular orbit, one that doesn’t stray too close or too far from the habitable zone surrounding the parent star. The planet must have a fairly stable temperature range over geologic time periods, and so you must have an atmosphere, and thus has to be massive enough to retain an atmosphere, without being so massive that you end up with a brown dwarf – a quasi-stellar body. The axis can’t have an extreme tilt, and it would greatly assist if the planet had a large moon around it to assist its long term stability. You need some sort of plate tectonics to ensure land building and the recycling of materials. If it’s intelligence, with technology you seek, the planet can’t be a water world. The planet must have formed in a region abundant in the heavier chemical elements (oxygen, sulphur, carbon, silicon, nitrogen, various metals, etc.). When you take all those factors (and more) into account, the number of suitable abodes where simple life can slowly evolve into complex life decreases rather quickly. And there’s no guarantee that there is really any directed purpose to evolution in that evolution doesn’t require simple life to become complex life. Survival and leaving offspring is what it’s all about, and if single cell critters do that what more is needed?

One note about planetary disasters or catastrophes is that these cut both ways. They can’t be frequent enough and/or large enough to wipe out the entire biosphere in total, especially the biosphere comprised of complex life forms, but on the other hand, infrequent small disasters can spur on evolutionary change by opening up environmental niches, but depending on who or what you are, when you are, and where you are, a disaster can be a double edged sword. I mean if you’re a T-Rex sixty five million years ago, its bad news. On the other hand, without the bad news for T-Rex, we wouldn’t be here, so for us, an asteroid impact 65 million years ago turned out to be good news!

It’s also difficult to naturally transport complex life around the galaxy, unlike microbial life. If a meteor hit Earth and blasted a chunk of terra firma off towards Mars, pity the poor cockroach going along for the ride. Cockroaches are tough, but not that tough. And even if a cockroach did make it alive to the surface of, say Mars, it wouldn’t survive long.

Anyway, once you have multicellular critters that have survived and thrived in a reasonably stable part of the Universe over many generations, will they evolve intelligence? I mean finding an extraterrestrial equivalent of a trilobite is all well and good, but we want to find beings more like ourselves.

IMHO, intelligence, the ability to figure things out, has evolutionary survival value and will tend to be selected for, and thus over time, there will tend to have evolved life forms with ever higher IQ’s. Here on Earth, just about all mammals and birds, and some exceptional invertebrates (the cephalopods like squid and the octopus), have reasonable IQ’s at least when compared to bacteria, plants, insects, fish, etc. Of course just as some kinds of organisms are faster than others, or have keener senses of sight or smell or hearing, not all advanced organisms are going to end up equal in the IQ stakes. But, the fact remains, the ability to think, to figure things out, can only increase your odds of survival and leaving behind more offspring.

Finally, for SETI to succeed, for UFOs to be alien spaceships, one needs our intelligent species to develop technology, and here’s where I see bottleneck number two. The evolution of technology isn’t inevitable and has a lot of just-so factors attached.

Firstly, your home planet has got to come equipped with the right sorts of materials like oxygen and metal ores and other objects than can be turned into useful tools, and of course a suitable supply of various energy sources. That’s not a given.

Water worlds are out of the running since it’s difficult to discover and utilise fire in that sort of environment.

You can’t have all your required locomotive appendages in contact with the ground – some have to be free to manipulate objects in your environment. Birds have wings that are off the ground, but since wings aren’t good at making tools, that seems to rule out wings and birds of a feather pretty much as well

So, we’ve already ruled out dolphins and whales and the cephalopods being water based creatures, and the birds with their useless wings as far as building things is concerned, and all the four-footed walking mammals.

It might be conceivable that you can build up a technology using your mouth parts and/or using a tail to manipulate and build things, but we don’t have obvious terrestrial case studies, although you might argue that bees and wasps and termites and ants and birds can build elaborate structures using just their mouths.

It’s not all that obvious that technology actually adds all that much value towards ultimate long-term survival. Lots of technological advancements do, like controlling fire, developing agriculture, the rise of modern medicine and food technologies. But then lots of modern technological wonders, the automobile, CDs, sofas, microwave ovens, and thousands of other consumer products don’t really contribute to our overall survival – certainly cars don’t when considering the road toll! Then that brings up the fact that things technological can sometimes work in the opposite direction. Toxic this, pollutant that, nuclear the next thing; then throw in a bit of global warming; the rise of urban city living with overcrowding and in general overpopulation; chemical, biological and radiological warfare/terrorism; instruments of warfare in general, like guns; the overuse of antibiotics and the rise of antibiotic resistant germs; exposure to electromagnetic fields – well, the list of horrors or potential horrors goes on and on.

It makes for an interesting question: would mankind ultimately survive longer had technology never entered the equation, or not? It’s an unanswerable question in that 1) we can’t run the contrary as a controlled experiment, and 2) that the genie is well and truly out of the bottle and there’s probably no turning back now.

So, overall, SETI might not be able to detect our technological and communicating kin out there, and UFOs might not be alien spaceships right here, because it’s 1) hard to evolve multicellular organisms, and 2) technology isn’t inevitable and might even be counterproductive. Thus, Earth, with its multicellular critters and humanity with its technology, is quite the rare planet within the Universe – according to some.

The main proponents of what is now called the ‘Rare Earth Hypothesis’ are the scientists Brownlee and Ward (see below), and they have certainly stirred up an astrobiological hornet’s nest with the idea. That’s good for science in the long term. The belief in an unproved but accepted scientific proposition, in this case that that there are lots of complex alien critters out there, needs to be challenged if fields of inquiry aren’t going to stagnate. However, make no mistake, it is the ‘Rare Earth Hypothesis’, not the ‘Unique Earth Hypothesis’, so religious fundamentalists who have taken this hypothesis to their hearts; who still need Planet Earth, and human beings, as some sort of religious special creation, should really not take comfort from these ideas. The Copernicus Revolution is still alive and well.

Further recommended readings:

Brownlee, Donald & Ward, Peter D.; Rare Earth: Why Complex Life Is Uncommon in the Universe; Copernicus Books, New York; 2000:

Burger, William C.; Perfect Planet, Clever Species: How Unique Are We? Prometheus Books, Amherst, New York; 2003:

Morris, Simon Conway; Life’s Solution: Inevitable Humans In A Lonely Universe; Cambridge University Press, Cambridge; 2003:

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